BohannonAll rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in anyform or by any means-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, orinformation storage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the publisher. While preparing this book, I con-ing a career in the fashion industty that shown in this text instead of current ducted exhaustive research on the bodysuits my abilities, offers challenges, and trendy styles that will become dated after measurements of men of differentbrings excitement; it has also introduced one season. The styles shown throughout weights, heights, ages, and ethnicities.
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BohannonAll rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in anyform or by any means-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, orinformation storage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the publisher.
While preparing this book, I con-ing a career in the fashion industty that shown in this text instead of current ducted exhaustive research on the bodysuits my abilities, offers challenges, and trendy styles that will become dated after measurements of men of differentbrings excitement; it has also introduced one season. The styles shown throughout weights, heights, ages, and ethnicities.
As this book represent a range of pattern With this information, I developed sizea student at the Fashion Institute of work from beginning to advanced levels.
These charts should beFrancisco, California, I discovered that The content in this book is organized helpful for pattern makers and manufac-pattern making was my area of expertise. I public. Going ure, to give students a more accurate ideaCalifornia, working concurrently as a pro- through the steps toward completing a of the actual proportions of the finishedfessional pattern maker for Marian pattern is effective only if the student garment on an average size.
Clayden, I nc. My studen ts appreciated understands the process and how all ofthe handouts I supplied to supplement the pieces come together in a finished gar- My goals in writing this textbook aremy classes and suggested that I write a ment. I discussed the entirety and include facings and closures. Students indi- professionals in the fashion industry. Happy pat-menswear text. I was more than happy to learning activities, practice problems, and ternmaking!
While preparing this book, I con-ing a career in the fashion industry that shown in this text instead of current ducted exhaustive research on the bodysuits my abilities, offers challenges, and trendy styles that will become dated after measurements of men of differentbrings excitement; it has also introduced one season. These charts should beFrancisco, California, I discovered that The content in this book is organized helpful for pattern makers and manufac-patternmaking was my area of expertise.
I publie. Clayden, Ine. My students appreciated understands the process and how all ofthe handouts I supplied to supplement the pieces come together in a finished gar- My goals in writing this textbook aremy classes and suggested that I write a ment.
With their pieces such as shirt fronts and backs, To include considerations of the man-input and my own knowledge and experi- sleeves, collars, and facings work together ufacturing process and industry termi-ence as a patternmaker and instructor, I as a unit, as well as how the wearers will nology.
I wish to thank all of and whose computer knowledge helped honor of having my work published, formy students at West Valley College who which I cannot thank them enough. Olgapeppered me with questions that required me learn the programs necessary to com- Kontzias has been a supporter since I firstme to come up with answers, as well as contacted Fairchild. She was instrumentalstudents whose designs challenged my plete this textbook. Thank you, too, for in seeing this project to fruition and alsoskills and who shared their own expertise put me in touch with Joseph Miranda,from their careers in the fashion industry putting up with me during this very long Elizabeth Marotta, and others at Fairchildin other countries.
Thank you, all! Hector Edward Lopez thank my family, friends, and modelsDepartment at West Valley College have for their continued interest in my project,been very encouraging during my time as to be my patternmaking and teaching for participating in size measurementan instructor, and they helped to convince research, and for listening to my bookme to write this book. I thank them for mentor. He was one of my instructors at updates with eagerness and not boredom. Without the Internet this book would have taken much longer to complete.
Basic information about the Figure 1. Students who have ments, and then transferringextensive knowledge of sewing using these measurements onto acommercial patterns will find that the paper pattern. This is donefashion manufacturing industry has its using pencils, tape measures,own standards for widths of seam rulers, curves, scissors, andallowance, pattern marking such as tape.
The finished paper pat-notches and punch holes, and time-sav- tern is placed on top of fabricing construction methods. A knowledge of sewing tech-niques is very valuable for a pattern makerbut beginning students can successfullylearn patternmaking and sewing simulta-neously if they have an aptitude for work-ing with their hands and are able tovisualize patterns and garments in athree-dimensional manner.
The sloper is traced and over the centuries. Before the advent ofthen set aside. The traced copy is con- computers, patterns were always made byverted into a new style using one or more hand.
In the previous and current cen-patternmaking techniques. These tech- turies, machines have been used to createniques include adding fullness, contour- patterns. The introduction of body scan-ing, pivoting, and slash and spread.
As people is used to cut the garment; this entiremade clothing fIt closer to the body they process is completely computerized. Clothing manufacturers often produce garments offshore to reduce the costs they incur, which reduces the retail cost the consumer pays.
The fashion industry has had its share of bad press about the poor conditions under which its products are produced. Manufacturers should do their utmost to ensure that their workers and contractors are treated fairly, with reason- able compensation and hours, decent working conditions, and respect. A fIrst sample of the new style is then cut and sewn.
The first sample is fitted to a body form, a live model, or both. A second sample is cut, sewn, and fitted. Further changes may be made, and more sample garments may be cut and sewn, until the designer, pattern maker, in- house merchandiser, and company owner, all of these are satisfied. At this point, more samples are made for in-house sales- people and sales representatives who show them to prospective buyers for retail estab- lishments, or the manufacturer may sell directly to the public.
Once a style is deemed worthy of being put into produc- tion, the pattern is sent to the production patternmaker who prepares the patternfor grading into a size range. The produc-tion pattern must be as perfect as possibleso that errors are not transferred onto pro-duction garments, numbering hundredsor thousands for large companies.
This isonly one way of producing patterns; eachcompany has its own system. For example,employees of small companies may beresponsible for more than one part of theproduction process. Some companies areso small that the designer does all of thepattern work and maybe even the cuttingand sewing. There are some terms you will need to straight grain.
The selvages are the tightlyknow and understand before you start the woven edges that run along the outerlessons in this book. The terms that are in length of a bolt of fabric and are parallel tothe glossary are in boldface the first time the straight grain.
There are someterms that require longer explanations or Occasionally a garment will be cutvisual aids for you to fully understand with the weft or cross grain up and downthem. The explanation of these terms the body instead of around the body.
Thismake up the remainder of this chapter. The fabric will hang differently if cut on theFabric grainlines are important to under- cross grain, especially if there are gathersstand and use correctly or your garments or pleats. The gathers or pleats will not liewill not hang properly and will twist. When fabric is woven on a loom, the firstyarns that are placed on the loom are Bias Grainlinecalled the warp grain or the straightgrain. These yarns run the length of the Another way to cut garments out of fabricfabric so if you have three yards of fabric, is to use the bias grainline.
If you take thethe warp grain yarns are three yards long. Usually, degree angle to the straight or crossgarments made of woven fabric use the grain. This degree angle line is calledwarp or straight grain up and down the true bias.
When a garment is cut with thebody. Garments hang well when cut out true bias up and down on the body, theof fabric this way, as long as the pattern garment will stretch and cling to the body. This is one way to make garments fit a wider range of figure types just as knitsCross Grainline do, but it uses more fabric per garment and can be difficult to sew without get-After the loom has been set with warp ting ripples or stress lines on the seams.
Agrain yarns you begin to weave the weft strip of bias fabric may be used to bindgrain yarns or cross grain. These yarns garment edges or finish off raw edgesrun across the width of the fabric from side of seams. The grainline can beparallel to the straight drawn in various places on the pattern, grain and selvages depending on whether the garment is cut on the straight, cross, or bias grainline; however, when placing the pattern on a piece of fabric, the grainline drawn on the pattern piece is always laid parallel to the straight grain and selvages of the fabric.
Since most fashion manufacturers expect to make multiple copies of their designs,. You can use special electric tools or computerized Figure 1. Because of this, you should refrain from making Pattern pieces have grainlines drawn on patterns with very odd shapes, extremely them, so they are plac.
The grain- the production process difficult, if not line is drawn as a straight line that runs impossible. Each pattern should have a style number. This number usually has some significance. For instance, the first number may tell you what year or season the style was created; the second number may tell you whether the garment is a shirt, pant, or jacket; and the last two numbers may indicate the style itself.
When drafting first patterns you usu- any write the name of the pattern piece for easy recognition such as shirt front or col- lar. YouFigure 7. It may also be used to reduce retain their shape. An 2-selfinterlining might be used to give extraweight and stability to a garment, or itmight be used as insulation in coldweather wear such as batting in a skijacket.
An underlining fab-ric layer might also be used in some gar-ments to add stability to flimsy self fabricsor additional support across the upperback of a jacket. Fashion manufacturers have theirown systems to label and color code pat-tern pieces. A color code is providedbelow. You may customize your colorcode system. Figure 1. This results in seams on woven garments. To indicate this seams and very curvy seams such as fac-type of cut layout, draw a foldline against ings and necklines. Knit garments arecenter back.
All of these amountsing on the seam finish. Most fashion vary by the types of machines and fabrics used. There are many different types of allowance on edges of garments sewn with hem finishes, and the measurement of hem this type of machine.
Three-thread over- allowances can vary accordingly. The fol- lock seams are commonly used on knits lowing are just a few types of hem finishes: that do not ravel; therefore, the raw edges are not trimmed by the blade. The most narrow hem finish is the roll Corners Determined by Different Factors hem, which can be sewn on a three- thread overlock machine by setting Figure 1.
To simplify the cutting process, seam tightening the tension of the upper allowance shapes in the corners can be looper.
PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PATTERNMAKING FOR FASHION DESIGNERS: MENSWEAR
Practical Guide to Patternmaking for Fashion Designers: Menswear