Like the later medieval Christian theologians, Islamic and Arabic thinkers sought to reconcile reason and the revelation of their scripture. In eleventh-century southern Spain, Arabic philosophers achieved a thriving intellectual center in the cultural milieu of al-Andalus Andalusia. Ibn Tufayl ca. Ibn Tufayl presented this view in an intriguing essay that posited human solitude as an essential method for acquiring the highest knowledge. But Ibn Tufayl offered a novel presentation for his recapitulation of philosophical ideas. The purpose of his narrative is to point to esoteric doctrines, beyond philosophy and reason, in order to attract the discerning, as Ibn Tufayl puts it.
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After his gazelle mother passes away when he is still a child, he dissects her body and performs an autopsy in order to find out what happened to her. The discovery that her death was due to a loss of innate heat sets him "on a road of scientific inquiry " and self-discovery. Hayy ultimately comes into contact with civilization and religion when he meets a castaway named Absal.
He determines that certain trappings of religion and civilization, namely imagery and dependence on material goods, are necessary for the multitude in order that they might have decent lives. However, he believes that imagery and material goods are distractions from the truth and ought to be abandoned by those whose reason recognizes that they are distractions. Ibn Tufail drew the name of the tale and most of its characters from an earlier work by Ibn Sina Avicenna. It reflects one of the main concerns of Muslim philosophers later also of Christian thinkers , that of reconciling philosophy with revelation.
At the same time, the narrative anticipates in some ways both Robinson Crusoe and Emile: or, On Education. It tells of a child who is nurtured by a gazelle and grows up in total isolation from humans. In seven phases of seven years each, solely by the exercise of his faculties, Hayy goes through all the gradations of knowledge.
Philosophical themes Edit Hayy ibn Yaqdhan dealt with many philosophical themes, especially in regards to epistemology. The thoughts expressed in the novel can be found "in different variations and to different degrees in the books of Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , Isaac Newton , and Immanuel Kant.
The theory of tabula rasa later gave rise to the nature versus nurture debate in modern psychology. Conditions of possibility Edit In Hayy ibn Yaqzan, Ibn Tufail was also "the first author in the history of philosophy to ask himself the question" of the " conditions of possibility " of thought. He asked himself the questions "how does thought manifest itself" and "what is structure?
Ibn Tufail wrote the following in Hayy ibn Yaqzan:   "If you want a comparison that will make you clearly grasp the difference between the perception , such as it is understood by that sect [the Sufis] and the perception as others understand it, imagine a person born blind, endowed however with a happy natural temperament , with a lively and firm intelligence, a sure memory, a straight sprite, who grew up from the time he was an infant in a city where he never stopped learning, by means of the senses he did dispose of, to know the inhabitants individually, the numerous species of beings, living as well as non-living, there, the streets and sidestreets, the houses, the steps, in such a manner as to be able to cross the city without a guide, and to recognize immediately those he met; the colors alone would not be known to him except by the names they bore, and by certain definitions that designated them.
Suppose that he had arrived at this point and suddenly, his eyes were opened, he recovered his view, and he crosses the entire city, making a tour of it. Russell writes:  "The principle of associative learning was first introduced by Ibn Sina Avicenna; d. It was further developed in a unique narrative Hayy ibn Uyakzan by Ibn Tufayl d. Baruch Spinoza also read the work and soon encouraged a Dutch translation, which was published by his friend Johannes Bouwmeester in There were also two German translations of the novel, the first based on the Latin translation and the second based on the Arabic original.
Pons Boigues in Zaragoza. An accurate French translation was also published that same year by Prof. Gauthier at Algiers. Both Rousseau and Kipling were likely to have been influenced by Hayy ibn Yaqzan.
Hayy Ibn Yaqdhan - Plot Summary
After his gazelle mother passes away when he is still a child, he dissects her body and performs an autopsy in order to find out what happened to her. The discovery that her death was due to a loss of innate heat sets him "on a road of scientific inquiry" and self-discovery. Without contact with other human beings, Hayy discovers ultimate truth through a systematic process of reasoned inquiry. Hayy ultimately comes into contact with civilization and religion when he meets a castaway named Absal.
HAYY IBN YAQDHAN PDF
Akinojar The protagonist Hayy ibn Yaqzan grows up from infancy to adulthood on a uninhabited island. You are commenting using your Facebook account. But such Lines may be drawn in all Bodies. But the source of his ideas is of less import- ance than his imaginative handling of them. From all quarters of the Almohad empire troops were collected and formed into the most powerful Muslim army that had ever appeared on the Peninsula, and a great fleet was fitted out for a simultaneous assault on Lisbon. To concur with the later third century c. If ye do that which I command you, to-morrow ye shall be with me 1 Koran, ix, 34, The abstract philosophical tale of Iby Tufayl is the historically first of a series of such reflections on the nature of human behavior and learning.
Hayy ibn Yaqzan
Abu Bakr ibn Tufayl was born c. In , when he was about 30 or 31, Ibn Tufayl traveled to Marrakesh in modern-day Morocco , where he pursued a political career in the Almohad court. In Hayy ibn Yaqzan, he explores some of the most pressing questions of his day about philosophy and religion through the medium of imaginative fiction. Setting the story on a generic island at an unspecified time helps establish this universality. But despite its indefinite setting, the story features intellectual interests, assumptions, and conclusions that point quite clearly to its origins in twelfth-century Almohad North Africa. Soon after, the Almoravids conquered the numerous petty states taifa kingdoms that made up Muslim Spain. Throughout the period of Almoravid rule, the dynasty fought to protect its holdings from the swelling military might of Christian forces from northern Spain.