FRACTURA HANGMAN PDF

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. However, opinions on operative or nonoperative treatment have not yet been solidified. The classification for treatment guidance from the literature was also reviewed. The classification of Effendi et al. Rigid immobilization alone was necessary for most cases. Surgical stabilization is recommended in unstable cases when there is the possibility of later instability, such as Levine-Edwards Type IIa and III fractures with significant dislocation.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. However, opinions on operative or nonoperative treatment have not yet been solidified. The classification for treatment guidance from the literature was also reviewed. The classification of Effendi et al. Rigid immobilization alone was necessary for most cases. Surgical stabilization is recommended in unstable cases when there is the possibility of later instability, such as Levine-Edwards Type IIa and III fractures with significant dislocation.

The classification system proposed by Effendi et al. It is defined as fractures to the lamina, articular facets, pedicles, or pars of the axis vertebra. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are now becoming an increasingly accepted means to achieve evidence based conclusions; and the methods can help surgeons to make rational decisions. Some papers were found by manual methods. Additional articles identified from these references that contained relevant supporting information were then included.

The search was performed by one reviewer.

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A systematic review of the management of hangman’s fractures

Left without, right with annotation. It can be seen clearly that C2 red outline is moved forward with respect to C3 blue outline. The injury mainly occurs from falls , usually in elderly adults, and motor accidents mainly due to impacts of high force causing extension of the neck and great axial load onto the C2 vertebra. Females accounted for The mechanism of the injury is forcible hyperextension of the head, usually with distraction of the neck. When the subject was dropped, the head would be forced into hyperextension by the full weight of the body, a sufficient force to cause the fracture.

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Fractura de Hangman: síntomas, tratamiento y Más

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