DRAWING THE LIVING FIGURE JOSEPH SHEPPARD PDF

Click on any image for larger view. David Luigi Someone asked Pontormo, "Which is the greater art, painting or sculpture? Maybe that dialogue really took place, and maybe it did not. But it is a story you never forget if you love drawings. For Pontormo was saying something that every serious artist knows: drawing is the purest form of visual art. The speed and simplicity of the drawing process reveals everything: how much the artist knows about nature and his craft; how decisively he can visualize what he sees or what he imagines; and how he really feels.

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Skull creates shapes of A forehead, B cheek, C jaw. D Eye is egg-shaped, sits in eye socket. E Clavicles start at head of F sternum, rising upward and back toward outside of shoulder. Note direction of first five ribs attached to sternum: first rib goes upward; second moves straight across; others point downward.

G End of sternum protrudes. H Cavity of rib cage forms arch. I Lower ribs slant down from back to front. Pelvis holds stomach like basin. J Pelvic crest is prominent. K Hipbone is close to skin, clearly seen on male. Note oval shape of L kneecap. Silhouette of knee is created by M end of femur, N head of tibia. O Head of fibula creates bump. Ankle is formed by P end of tibia, Q end of fibula, making hinge joint for foot.

First seven ribs attach by cartilage to sternum. Each of next three ribs attaches by cartilage to rib above. Eleventh, twelfth ribs do not attach to sternum and are called "floating ribs. Eight bones of wrist are treated here as one unit. B Trapezius creates shoulder silhouette. C Pectoralis and deltoid meet to form cavity between them. D Note division of deltoid.

E Pectoralis inserts into arm under deltoid. F Rectus abdominis is divided. G Long supinator and H wrist extensor both cross over from outside of elbow to thumb side of wrist. I External oblique inserts into top of pelvic crest.

J Tendons of finger extensor are distinct. K Tensor fasciae latae angles toward outer contour. L See upside-down "V" where M sartorius and tensor fasciae latae overlap N rectus femoris. When knee is locked, O band of Richer pulls muscles in. P Gastrocnemius and Q soleus are calf muscles that attach in back of leg; they are seen from front. R Tendon of big toe extensor is prominent. Several muscles are treated here as one unit. Two parts are treated as one large muscle under rectus femoris.

Many bands that hold muscles in place are omitted. B Note slant of clavicle. C Sternum shows rib attachments. D Cavity of ribcage is narrower on female than on male. E Lower ribs are evident. F Female pelvis is wider than male. G Crest of pelvis is partly covered by body fat. H Hipbone is close to skin, creating cavity on hip surface of females and fat males. I Kneecap and fat below form figure "8". J Shape of head of tibia slants inward. K Inside of ankle is always higher than outside.

L End of ulna is prominent on little finger side of wrist. M Head of ulna forms elbow. Clavicle and scapula form shoulder socket for humerus—a ball and socket joint. Radius head, at elbow, is small. End of radius, at wrist, is large. Head is large; end is small. Female pelvis is usually wider than male with crests projecting farther forward.

Inside of ankle is always higher than outside. B Pectoralis lies beneath C breast. D Vertical division of rectus abdominis is distinct—except on extremely fat figures. E External oblique and female body fat cover most of pelvic crest. F Sartorius helps to form G upside down "V" shaped cavity. H Tendon of thumb extensor makes sharp ridge. I Female body fat covers hipbone. J Indentation is formed by sartorius. K Outside of vastus is prominent when knee is locked.

L Iliotibial band descends outside of thigh like stripe, attaches to outside of tibia head. M Small fat deposit appears under kneecap. N Calf muscles attach to heel bone by O Achilles tendon. P Tibialis anterior tendon makes bridge between ankle and foot. Q Tendon of toe extensor is prominent. Three muscles run obliquely across back of forearm into thumb. B Note slight "step down" where head of scapula joins end of clavicle.

C Edge of scapula protrudes. D Lower end of scapula swings upward and outward when arm is raised. E Knuckles appear where palm bones join finger bones. F Wrist forms flat area between hand and forearm. G Radius is longer than H ulna at wrist.

I Hook of ulna and J head of radius are prominent. K Dimples are caused by pelvic crests. L Hipbone is close to surface. M Head of fibula creates bump. N Heel is off-center—toward little-toe side. O Inside end of humerus is always prominent. BONES 1 Spinal column is made up of twenty-four vertebrae, divided into three groups: seven cervical vertebrae of neck support skull and are most flexible partly covered here by hand ; twelve dorsal vertebrae of rib cage; five lumbar vertebrae of lower back, which are largest.

Head of humerus is round like ball. Both sides of pelvis contain sockets to fit heads of femurs. These are ball-and-socket joints that enable femur to rotate freely in all directions. Upper part of femur protrudes, forms hipbone, always appears next to skin. Movements of foot on ankle are more limited than those of hand on wrist. Major foot movement is hingelike. C Long head of triceps splits between D infraspinatus and E teres major.

Shoulder blade muscles D and E insert into arm. F Latissimus dorsi forms back wall of armpit, inserts into the arm with E teres major. G Edge of trapezius shows thickness of muscle. H Long head of triceps inserts between scapula muscles. I Long supinator makes outside of forearm higher than inside.

J Tendon of wrist flexor stands out. K Sacrospinalis creates two columns in small of back. L Gluteus is shaped like butterfly wings. M Biceps femoris tendon, N semitendinosus tendon, and O crease in back of knee create "H" shape. P Gastrocnemius has two heads. Q Achilles tendon attaches gastrocnemius to heel. This group of muscles starts at pelvis, attaches along spinal column. Inside head is longer, more prominent.

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