Useful guides, books, and how-to articles 1. Check your own domain or see the historical performance of the domains we monitor. Supports DoH and DoT. DNS Looking Glass - This site, maintained by Frederic Cambus, enables you to see what people querying your site from different locations different resolvers would see. It will run a number of health checks on a domain, including DNSSEC but also basic checks for accessibility, consistency, delegation and basic security.

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Whatever your application is, BIND 9 probably has the required features. As the first, oldest, and most commonly deployed solution, there are more network engineers who are already familiar with BIND 9 than with any other system. Users are free to add functionality to BIND 9 and contribute back to the community through our open Gitlab. BIND 9 on the Internet BIND is used successfully for every application from publishing the DNSSEC-signed DNS root zone and many top-level domains, to hosting providers who publish very large zone files with many small zones, to enterprises with both internal private and external zones, to service providers with large resolver farms.

Getting Started 1. Choosing a version We also maintain a significant feature matrix and version history. Most operating systems also offer BIND 9 packages for their users. These may be built with a different set of defaults than the standard BIND 9 distribution, and some of them add a version number of their own that does not map exactly to the BIND 9 version.

See the Best Practices documents in our Knowledgebase for configuration recommendations. Resolver users may find Getting started with Recursive Resolvers to be useful. Maintenance Most users will benefit from joining the bind-users mailing list.

We advise all users to subscribe to bind-announce lists. For other news, see our BIND blogs. Our partners at Men and Mice run a very good series of hands-on training classes. DNS recursive operations An authoritative DNS server answers requests from resolvers, using information about the domain names it is authoritative for. You can provide DNS services on the Internet by installing this software on a server and giving it information about your domain names. Not recommended for high-query rate authoritative environments.

Once you have initially signed your zones, BIND 9 can automatically re-sign dynamically updated records with inline signing. Catalog Zones Catalog zones facilitate the provisioning of zone information across a nameserver constellation. Catalog zones are particularly useful when there is a large number of secondary servers. This feature will automatically propagate new zones added to the primary master to the secondary servers, or remove zones deleted from the primary master, eliminating the need for separate scripts to do this.

Using dnstap enables capturing both query and response logs, with a reduced impact on the overall throughput of the BIND server than native BIND logging. Messages may be logged to a file or to a UNIX socket. Support for log-file rotation will depend on which option you choose. Zone files are established and updated on a primary server. Secondaries maintain copies of the zone files and answer queries. This configuration allows scaling the answer capacity by adding more secondaries, while zone information is maintained in only one place.

The primary signals that updated information is available with a NOTIFY message to the secondaries, and the secondaries then initiate a zone transfer from the primary. There are a number of configuration options for controlling the zone updating process.

In the most common application, a web browser uses a local stub resolver library on the same computer to look up names in the DNS. That stub resolver is part of the operating system. The stub resolver usually will forward queries to a caching resolver, a server or group of servers on the network dedicated to DNS services. Those resolvers will send queries to one or multiple authoritative servers in order to find the IP address for that DNS name.

Maximum Cache Hit Rate Prefetch popular records before they expire from the cache. This will improve the performance delivered to end users for resolving names that have short expiration times. Flexible Cache Controls From time to time you may get incorrect or outdated records in the resolver cache.

BIND 9 gives you the ability to remove them selectively or as a group. This allows you to give internal on-network and external from the Internet users different views of your DNS data, keeping some DNS information private. Resolver Rate-limiting BIND 9 offers two configuration parameters, fetches-per-zone and fetches-per-server. These features enable rate-limiting queries to authoritative systems that appear to be under attack. These features have been successful in mitigating the impact of a DDoS attack on resolvers in the path of the attack.

In BIND 9, this is enabled with a single command. The primary application is for blocking access to domains that are believed to be published for abusive or illegal purposes. There are companies that specialize in identifying abusive sites on the Internet, which market these lists in the form of RPZ feeds.

This feature minimizes leakage of excessive detail about the query to systems that need those details. BIND does not yet support encryption natively e.


Domain Name System

On the wire, the name may be shortened using label compression where ends of domain names mentioned earlier in the packet can be substituted for the end of the current domain name. A free standing is used to denote the current origin. TYPE is the record type. It indicates the format of the data and it gives a hint of its intended use. For example, the A record is used to translate from a domain name to an IPv4 address , the NS record lists which name servers can answer lookups on a DNS zone , and the MX record specifies the mail server used to handle mail for a domain specified in an e-mail address. For example, in the following configuration, the DNS zone x.


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For debugging purposes, it may be useful to enable this. You could change the config file to enable query logging permanently , or issue the command rndc querylog on enable until next service restart. We get a response from DNS server The output specifies that the answer is non-authoritative, i. Here, we see that there is an A record for www. All lines beginning with semicolons ; are comments in the zone file syntax. Common mistakes The concept of a zone file is relatively simple: a text file containing hostname-to-IP mappings.

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