BOLESLAW PRUS PHARAOH PDF

Dagon , a Phoenician merchant: a Phoenician and Philistine god of agriculture and the earth; the national god of the Philistines. All ancient Egyptian social classes , including the peasants , are represented in Pharaoh. Asarhadon, a Phoenician innkeeper: a variant of " Esarhaddon ", an Assyrian king. Phut another name used by Berossus : Phut, a descendant of Noah named in Genesis.

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Dagon , a Phoenician merchant: a Phoenician and Philistine god of agriculture and the earth; the national god of the Philistines. All ancient Egyptian social classes , including the peasants , are represented in Pharaoh.

Asarhadon, a Phoenician innkeeper: a variant of " Esarhaddon ", an Assyrian king. Phut another name used by Berossus : Phut, a descendant of Noah named in Genesis. Mephres , an elderly Egyptian high priest and the most implacable foe of the protagonist, Ramses: an 18th-Dynasty pharaoh, evidently identical with Thutmose I. Sargon , an Assyrian envoy : name of two Assyrian kings. Osochor , a priest thought chapter 40 to have sold Egyptian priestly secrets to the Phoenicians: a Meshwesh king who ruled Egypt in the late 21st Dynasty.

Musawasa, a Libyan prince: the Meshwesh , a Libyan tribe. It [may] be [described] as a novel on Through his analysis of the dynamics of an ancient Egyptian society, he But Pharaoh is par excellence a political novel. Perhaps the chief lesson, belatedly absorbed by Ramses as pharaoh, is the importance, to power, of knowledge — of science.

Pharaoh is a study of factors that affect the rise and fall of civilizations. Egypt developed as long as a homogeneous nation, energetic kings and wise priests worked together for the common good.

But there came a time when the populace declined in number in the aftermath of wars and lost their vitality under oppression and extortion, while the influx of foreigners undermined their racial unity.

When, in addition, the energy of the pharaohs and the wisdom of the priests were dissipated in a flood of Asian profligacy and these two forces began between them a struggle over the monopoly of fleecing the people, Egypt fell under the power of foreigners, and the light of civilization that had burned for several thousand years at the Nile expired.

A Positivist by philosophical persuasion, Prus had long argued that historical novels must inevitably distort historic reality. He had, however, eventually come over to the view of the French Positivist critic Hippolyte Taine that the arts, including literature, may act as a second means alongside the sciences to study reality, including broad historic reality. Ochorowicz made available to Prus books on the subject that he had brought from Paris.

Pharaoh also alludes to biblical Old Testament accounts of Moses chapter 7 , the plagues of Egypt chapter 64 , and Judith and Holofernes chapter 7 ; and to Troy , which had recently been excavated by Heinrich Schliemann. One such dually-determined feature relates to Egyptian beliefs about an afterlife. Palladino had been brought to Warsaw from a St. Spiritualist "mediums" in America and Europe claimed to communicate through tapping sounds with spirits of the dead, eliciting their secrets and conjuring up voices, music, noises and other antics, and occasionally working "miracles" such as levitation.

The modern Suez Canal had been completed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in , a quarter-century before Prus commenced writing Pharaoh. It was, he writes chapter 56 , "the greatest treasury in Egypt. Yet another plot element involves the Greek, Lykon, in chapters 63 [51] and 66 [52] and passim— hypnosis and post-hypnotic suggestion.

Prus, a disciple of Positivist philosophy , took a strong interest in the history of science. Examples of anachronism and anatopism , mentioned above, bear out that a punctilious historical accuracy was never an object with Prus in writing Pharaoh.

He used ancient Egypt as a canvas on which to depict his deeply considered perspectives on man, civilization and politics. The novel does a notable job of recreating a primal ancient civilization, complete with the geography, climate, plants, animals, ethnicities, countryside, agriculture, cities, trades, commerce, social stratification , politics , religion and warfare.

Prus succeeds remarkably in transporting readers back to the Egypt of thirty-one centuries ago. The personalities and behaviors of the characters are keenly observed and deftly drawn, often with the aid of apt Egyptian texts. Popularity[ edit ] Pharaoh, as a "political novel", has remained perennially topical ever since it was written.

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The Pharaoh and the Priest

The town was then in the Russian-controlled sector of partitioned Poland, known as the " Congress Kingdom ". During the Uprising, Leon developed a mental illness that he suffered from until his death in He suffered contusions to the neck and gunpowder injuries to his eyes, and was captured unconscious on the battlefield and taken to hospital in Siedlce. Prus was soon expelled from the Institute for his attitude toward the martinet Russian-language instructor. In , he embarked on a career as a newspaper columnist , while working several months at the Evans, Lilpop and Rau Machine and Agricultural Implement Works in Warsaw. Judym in the novel, Ludzie bezdomni Homeless People —a character resembling Dr. Prus had criticized the rowdy behavior of some Warsaw university students at a lecture about the poet Wincenty Pol.

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Bolesław Prus

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