History[ edit ] Dr. In , S. Carter reported the use of shadow-evaporated palladium islands for cell attachment. Selected major technical achievements during bio-MEMS development of the s include: In , the first oligonucleotide chip was developed  In , the first solid microneedles were developed for drug delivery  In , the first continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction chip was developed  In , the first demonstration of heterogeneous laminar flows for selective treatment of cells in microchannels  Today, hydrogels such as agarose , biocompatible photoresists , and self-assembly are key areas of research in improving bio-MEMS as replacements or complements to PDMS. In electrophoresis , a charged species in a liquid moves under the influence of an applied electric field. Dielectrophoresis can be used in bio-MEMS for dielectrophoresis traps, concentrating specific particles at specific points on surfaces, and diverting particles from one flow stream to another for dynamic concentration.
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History[ edit ] Dr. In , S. Carter reported the use of shadow-evaporated palladium islands for cell attachment. Selected major technical achievements during bio-MEMS development of the s include: In , the first oligonucleotide chip was developed  In , the first solid microneedles were developed for drug delivery  In , the first continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction chip was developed  In , the first demonstration of heterogeneous laminar flows for selective treatment of cells in microchannels  Today, hydrogels such as agarose , biocompatible photoresists , and self-assembly are key areas of research in improving bio-MEMS as replacements or complements to PDMS.
In electrophoresis , a charged species in a liquid moves under the influence of an applied electric field. Dielectrophoresis can be used in bio-MEMS for dielectrophoresis traps, concentrating specific particles at specific points on surfaces, and diverting particles from one flow stream to another for dynamic concentration.
Microfluidic approaches to bio-MEMS confer several advantages: When multiple solutions are added into the same microchannel , they flow in separate flow lanes no mixing due to laminar flow characteristics. This allows the production of disposable or single-use chips for improved ease of use and reduced probability of biological cross contamination , as well as rapid prototyping   Microfluidic devices consume much smaller amounts of reagents , can be made to require only a small amount of analytes for chemical detection, require less time for processes and reactions to complete, and produces less waste than conventional macrofluidic devices and experiments  Appropriate packaging of microfluidic devices can make them suitable for wearable applications, implants , and portable applications in developing countries  An interesting approach combining electrokinetic phenomena and microfluidics is digital microfluidics.
In digital microfluidics, a substrate surface is micropatterned with electrodes and selectively activated. One inexpensive method of producing valves with fast actuation times and variable flow restriction is multilayer soft lithography MSL. The basic scheme involves two perpendicular flow conduits separated by an impermeable elastomeric membrane at their intersection.
Controlled air flow passes through one conduit while the process fluid passes through the other. A pressure gradient between the two conduits, which is tuned by changing the control air flow rate, causes the membrane to deform and obstruct flow in the process channel. Ice Valves[ edit ] Diagram of an ice valve with Peltier cooling element. Ice valves operate by transporting heat away from a single portion of a flow channel, causing the fluid to solidify and stop flow through that region.
Thermoelectric TE units are used to transport heat away from the plug. Current state of the art ice valve technology features short closing times 0. Prefabricated Valves[ edit ] Prefabricated mechanical screw valves and solenoid valves require no advanced microfabrication processes and are easy to implement in soft substrate materials like PDMS.
Micro-scale Mixing[ edit ] Despite the fact that diffusion times are significantly higher in microfluidic systems due to small length scales, there are still challenges to removing concentration gradients at the time scales required for microfluidic technologies. Laminar flow with axial concentration gradients flows in, and laminar flow with diminished concentration gradients flows out.
Sonication is often employed to provide local mixing of streams through the generation of ultra-high energy acoustics. The primary mechanism of cell lysis by sonication is intense local heating and shear forces. This technology is in its infancy, however, and it is still not able to be used beyond a few, limited applications.
The goals of genomic and proteomic microarrays are to make high-throughput genome analysis faster and cheaper, as well as identify activated genes and their sequences. Oligonucleotide chips[ edit ] Oligonucleotide chips are microarrays of oligonucleotides. Conversely, green dots mean that the corresponding gene was expressed at a higher level in the untreated sample. Yellow dots, as a result of the overlap between red and green dots, mean that the corresponding gene was expressed at relatively the same level in both samples, whereas dark spots indicate no or negligible expression in either sample.
Peptide and protein microarrays[ edit ] The motivation for using peptide and protein microarrays is firstly because mRNA transcripts often correlate poorly with the actual amount of protein synthesized. Protein microarrays usually use Escherichia coli to produce proteins of interest; whereas peptide microarrays use the SPOT technique stepwise synthesis of peptides on cellulose or photolithography to make peptides. The application of this example bio-MEMS is for amplification of influenza A RNA in respiratory specimens  The polymerase chain reaction PCR is a fundamental molecular biology technique that enables the selective amplification of DNA sequences, which is useful for expanded use of rare samples e.
Heating up and cooling down in conventional PCR devices are time-consuming and typical PCR reactions can take hours to complete. The ability to perform medical diagnosis at the bedside or at the point-of-care is important in health care, especially in developing countries where access to centralized hospitals is limited and prohibitively expensive.
To this end, point-of-care diagnostic bio-MEMS have been developed to take saliva, blood, or urine samples and in an integrated approach perform sample preconditioning, sample fractionation, signal amplification, analyte detection, data analysis, and result display. These microscopic beads are functionalized with target molecules and moved through microfluidic channels using a varying magnetic field.
After this process is complete, a strong, stationary magnetic field is applied to immobilize the target-bound beads and wash away unbound beads.
BIOMEMS AND MEDICAL MICRODEVICES PDF
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ISBN 13: 9780819459770
Saliterman There are many individuals who through the years have provided me with the necessary background and inspiration to complete this book, and I would like to express my sincere gratitude. Suma marked it as to-read Microdeviced 06, Bringing together the creative talents of electrical, mechanical, optical and chemical engineers, materials specialists, clinical-laboratory scientists, and physicians, the science of biomedical microelectromechanical systems bioMEMS promises to deliver sensitive, selective, fast, low cost, less invasive, and more robust methods for diagnostics, individualized treatment, and novel drug delivery. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. My library Help Advanced Book Search. No trivia or quizzes yet. Ajeya marked it as to-read Oct 10, FDA blue book memorandum G This book is an introduction to this multidisciplinary technology and the current bomems of micromedical devices in use today. Fundamentals of BioMEMS and Medical Microdevices There will be an explosion of new implantable devices based on bioMEMS technology, and it is foreseeable that new standards will emerge, governing interconnectivity, power, and data telemetry so that all implantable devices will have conforming features.
BioMEMS and Medical Microsystems
About this title BioMEMS devices are as important to the future of medicine as microprocessors were to the computer revolution at the end of the last century. BioMEMS is a science that includes more than simply finding biomedical applications for microelectromechanical systems devices. It brings together the creative talents of electrical, mechanical, optical, and chemical engineers, materials specialists, clinical laboratory scientists, and physicians. BioMEMS devices are the platform upon which nanomedicine will be delivered. Topics include microfabrication of silicon, glass, and polymer devices, microfluidics and electrokinetics, sensors, actuators, and drug-delivery systems, micro-total-analysis systems and lab-on-a-chip devices, detection and measuring systems, genomics, proteomics, DNA, and protein microarrays, emerging applications in medicine, research, and homeland security, and packaging, biocompatibility, and ISO testing. The first text of its kind dedicated to bioMEMS training, this book is suitable for a single semester course for senior and graduate-level students, or as an introduction to others interested or already working in the field.