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Lerner Volume Editors Irving B. This book is printed on acid-free paper. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
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Contents: v. Freedheim — v. Schinka, Wayne F. Velicer — v. Nelson — v. Healy, Robert W. Proctor — v. Lerner — v.
Lerner, M. Ann Easterbrooks, Jayanthi Mistry — v. Reynolds, Gloria E. Miller — v. Widiger — v. Geller — v. Graham, Jack A. Naglieri — v. Goldstein — v. Borman, Daniel R. Ilgen, Richard J.
Weiner, Irving B. H —dc21 Printed in the United States of America. Lerner, PhD M. Some psychologists have more in common with biologists than with most other psychologists, and some have more in common with sociologists than with most of their psychological colleagues.
Some psychologists are interested primarily in the behavior of animals, some in the behavior of people, and others in the behavior of organizations. These and other dimensions of difference among psychological scientists are matched by equal if not greater heterogeneity among psychological practitioners, who currently apply a vast array of methods in many different settings to achieve highly varied purposes.
However, there has not previously been any single handbook designed to cover the broad scope of psychological science and practice. The present volume Handbook of Psychology was conceived to occupy this place in the literature. Two unifying threads run through the science of behavior. The specific histories of all specialty areas in psychology trace their origins to the formulations of the classical philosophers and the methodology of the early experimentalists, and appreciation for the historical evolution of psychology in all of its variations transcends individual identities as being one kind of psychologist or another.
Accordingly, Volume 1 in the Handbook is devoted to the history of psychology as it emerged in many areas of scientific study and applied technology. A second unifying thread in psychology is a commitment to the development and utilization of research methods suitable for collecting and analyzing behavioral data. With attention both to specific procedures and their application in particular settings, Volume 2 addresses research methods in psychology. Volumes 3 through 7 of the Handbook present the substantive content of psychological knowledge in five broad areas of study: biological psychology Volume 3 , experimental psychology Volume 4 , personality and social psychology Volume 5 , developmental psychology Volume 6 , and educational psychology Volume 7.
Each discusses unresolved issues and unanswered questions and proposes future directions in conceptualization, research, and practice. The Handbook of Psychology was prepared for the purpose of educating and informing readers about the present state of psychological knowledge and about anticipated advances in behavioral science research and practice.
With this purpose in mind, the individual Handbook volumes address the needs and interests of three groups. The preparation of this Handbook was made possible by the diligence and scholarly sophistication of the 25 volume editors and co-editors who constituted the Editorial Board. As Editor-in-Chief, I want to thank each of them for the pleasure of their collaboration in this project. I compliment them for having recruited an outstanding cast of contributors to their volumes and then working closely with these authors to achieve chapters that will stand each in their own right as valuable contributions to the literature.
The prevalent reasons for becoming a psychologist—scientific curiosity, the need for personal expression, or the desire for fame and fortune—would be unlikely to bring to mind the idea of generating a handbook. At the same time, most would agree that a handbook can be remarkably useful when the need arises. The chapters can provide the background for a grant proposal, the organization of a course offering, or a place for graduate students to look for a research problem.
Instead, what was terribly salient were the needs and goals of potential users of this volume: What would a reader need to know to have a good understanding of the current theoretical and empirical issues that occupy present-day thinkers and researchers? What could the highly sophisticated investigators who were selected to write the chapters tell the reader about the promising directions for future development?
The chapters in this volume provide both thorough and illuminating answers to those questions, and, to be sure, some can be grouped into a few sections based on some common, familiar themes. For those readers who want more information about what chapters would be useful or who are open to being intrigued by the promise of some fascinating new ideas, this is a good time to take a brief glimpse at what the chapters are about.
An immediately pressing question for the editors centered on what content to include and whom to invite for the individual chapters. There are probably many ways to arrive systematically at those decisions, but then there is the intuitive method, which is easier, at least in that it can introduce a slight element of self-expression.
The first chapter of this volume is a clear manifestation of the self-expressive mode. Chapters 1 and 2 of this book are subsumed under the general heading of contexts. Evolution provides a context that relates to the processes of the time dimension, that is, the sequences and progressions of nature over the history of life on earth.
Evolutionary theory generates a constellation of phylogenetic principles representing those processes that have endured and continue to undergird the ontogenetic development and character of human functioning.
As such, these principles may guide more effective thinking about which functions of personality are likely to have been—and to persist to be—the most relevant in our studies. A few additional words should be said in elaboration of these two contextual chapters.
Millon spells out numerous personality implications of these polarities and articulates sources of support from a wide range of psychological x Volume Preface literatures, such as humanistic theory and neurobiological research. Joan G. Miller and Lynne Schaberg, in their contextual chapter, provide a constructively critical review of the failings of mainstream social psychology owing to its culturefree assumption of societal homogeneity.
The authors specify a number of reasons why the cultural grounding of basic social-psychological processes have historically been downplayed. No less important is their articulation of the key conceptual formulations that have led to modern cultural psychology. The authors conclude by outlining the many ways in which ongoing cultural studies can contribute new and useful theoretical constructs, as well as pertinent research questions that may substantially enrich the character, constructs, and range of numerous, more basic social-psychological formulations.
They range from the genetic and biologic to the interpersonal and factorial. Each contributor is a major player in contemporary personality thought and research. Before we proceed, a few words should be said concerning the current status of personologic theory. And with the empirical grounding of personality in question and the consequential logic of personologic coherence and behavioral consistency under assault, adherents of the previously valued integrative view of personality lost their vaunted academic respectability and gradually withdrew from active publication.
Personality theory did manage to weather these mettlesome assaults, and it began what proved to be a wide-ranging resurgence in the s. The alternatives have justly faded to a status consonant with their trivial character, succumbing under the weight of their clinical inefficacy and scholarly boredom.
By contrast, a series of widely acclaimed formulations were articulated by a number of contemporary psychological, psychoanalytic, interpersonal, cognitive, factorial, genetic, social, neurobiologic, and evolutionary theorists. It is to these theorists and their followers that we turn next.
Bringing the primitive and highly speculative genetic thought of the early twentieth century up to date by drawing on the technologies of the recent decade, W. John Livesley, Kerry L. Jang, and Philip Anthony Vernon articulate a convincing rationale for formulating personality concepts and their structure on the basis of trait-heritability studies.
In a manner similar to Millon, who grounds his personologic concepts on the basis of a theory of evolutionary functions, Livesley et al. The authors contend that most measures of personality reflect heritable components and that the phenotypic structure of personality will ultimately resemble the pattern of an underlying genetic architecture.
They assert, further, that etiologic criteria such as are found in genetics can offer a more objective basis for appraising personologic structure than can psychometrically based phenotypic analyses. Moreover, they believe that the interaction of multiple genetic factors will fully account for the complex patterns of trait covariances and trait clusters. Continuing the thread of logic from evolution to genetics to the neurochemical and physiological, Marvin Zuckerman traces the interplay of these biologically based formulations to their interaction with the environment and the generation of learned behavioral traits.
Recognizing that detailed connections between the biological and the personological are not as yet fully developed, Zuckerman goes to great pains, nevertheless, to detail a wide range of strongly supporting evidence, from genetic twin studies to EEG and brain imaging investigations of cortical and autonomic arousal, to various indexes of brain neurochemistry.
Shifting the focus from the biological grounding of personality attributes, Robert F. Bornstein provides a thoughtful essay on both classical psychoanalytic and contemporary models of psychodynamic theory. He does record, however, that the first incarnation of psychoanalysis was avowedly biological, recognizing that Freud in set out to link psychological phenomena to then-extant models of neural functioning.
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