He was one of the greatest surgeons of his time. His encyclopaedia of surgery was used as standard reference work in the subject in all the universities of Europe for over five hundred years. The Muslim scientists, Al-Razi, Ibn Sina and Al-Zahrawi are among the most famous of those who worked in the field of medicine in pre-modern times. They have presented to the world scientific treasures which are today still considered important references for medicine and medical sciences as a whole. He descended from the Ansar tribe of Arabia who had settled earlier in Spain. The Al-Tasrif, completed about CE, was the result of almost fifty years of medical practice and experience.
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He used ink to mark the incisions in his patients preoperatively, now a routine standard procedure. In chapter twenty-six, he explained the differences between primary and secondary wound closure and the importance of wound debridement before closure. Extraction of stones from the urinary bladder is one of the oldest surgical operations in history. The operation was done through a perineal incision down to, then through, the bladder neck to reach the stone and extract it. He was the first to use a forceps to extract a bladder stone.
Before him, extraction of the stone was with an instrument similar to a small spoon and used to scoop it out. He invented Al-Mirwed, a metal probe or a sound used to confirm the presence of the stone before proceeding with perineal cystolithotomy. He also designed a special forceps lithotrite named Kalalib for crushing large vesical stones through a perineal cystotomy. He also used a syringe to irrigate the bladder and cleaning the ear. He described cauterization as a treatment for recurrent dislocation of the shoulder or hip; amputations, compound fractures, bone setting, fracture of the head, broken nose, broken lower jaw, wiring teeth with silver or gold wires, fractures of female pudenda and the male organ; fracture of collar bone, chest, ribs, scapula, vertebrae, hip, femur, forearm, palm and fingers, patella, leg, feet, and toes.
He described patelectomy one thousand years before Brooke reintroduced it in A leaf-shaped piece of eyelid skin is excised, and lash eversion is achieved as the defect is sutured primarily. He included illustrations of the surgical instruments, probably the first of their kind and a unique contribution to the history of surgery.
He found a monkey eating the bow strings of a musical instrument, made of sheep gut. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and accepted by the body. The patient gets a bath and his leg is kept in hot water until it becomes red and the veins dilate; or he exercises vigorously. Incise the skin opposite the varicose vein longitudinally either at the ankle or at the knee.
Keep the skin opened by hooks. Expose, dissect, and separate the vein. Introduct a spatula underneath it. When the vein is elevated above the skin level, hang it with a blunt rounded hook.
At the ankle, ligate and strip it by pulling it from the incision just above. Ligate the vein and then excise it. If difficulty is encountered in pulling it, ligate its terminal part with a string and pass it under the spatula and dissect it further. Pull gently and avoid its tearing because if it does, it becomes difficult to strip all of it and can cause harm to the patient. When you have stripped it all, put alcohol spanges at the sites of the skin incisions and take care of the incisions until they heal.
Dissect it and hang it with the hooks and strip it as previously described. Do not tear the vein or injure it. If this happens, it becomes difficult to strip it.
The hooks used should be blunt, eyeless, and rounded, otherwise they can injure the vein. His contributions are legion and his contributions to surgery immense.
References Azizieh F. Abu Al-Qasim greatest medieval surgeon. Arab Times. November 1, Elgohary MA. Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Ahmed B. Journal of the Tarrant County Medical Society. ISRN Surgery. The CSS Point. Qari M. Journal of Applied Hematology. Booz MK. Albucasis Bone Surgery in Antiquity. Pan Arab J Orth Traum. Al-Ghazal SK. Minaret Research Network. He is interested in the sciences.
Albucasis on surgery and instruments;
Correspondence and reprint requests: Samir S. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Al-Zahrawi traveled rarely, and spent most of his life in his hometown as a practicing physician-pharmacist-surgeon. After a long and distinguished medical career, he died in AD at the age of
Albucasis was born in and died in CE, and is generally recognized as being the leading Muslim surgeon of the Middle Ages, and the Father of Modern Surgery. Albucasis was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, which was a fatal condition in his day, and he correctly identified the hereditary nature of hemophilia. It was translated into Latin in the twelfth century by Gerard of Cremona. In the first two treatises of the Al-Tasrif, which were known in Latin as the Liber Theoricae, or Theoretical Treatise,Albucasis classified and described some different diseases and discussed their symptomatology and treatment. Book 28 of this 30 volume medical encyclopedia discussed the science of pharmacy, and was known in Latin as Liber Servitoris. In it, Albucasis illustrates and describes some different surgical instruments. For some five centuries after its initial translation, Al-Tasrif remained an important authority and reference work on medicine and surgery for European surgeons and physicians, since it solved many clinical problems.
ALBUCASIS, FATHER OF MODERN SURGERY
Biography[ edit ] Al-Zahrawi was born in the city of Azahara , 8 kilometers northwest of Cordoba , Andalusia. His birth date is not known for sure, however, scholars agree that it was after , the year his birthplace city of Azahara was founded. The nisba attributive title , Al-Ansari, in his name, suggests origin from the Medinian tribe of Al-Ansar ,  thus, tracing his ancestry back to Medina in the Arabian peninsula. It is also where he studied, taught and practiced medicine and surgery until shortly before his death in about , two years after the sacking of Azahara. Few details remain regarding his life, aside from his published work, due to the destruction of El-Zahra during later Castillian-Andalusian conflicts.