The highly visual approach enhances the learning of fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented — in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, how they need it, so that class time is more effective. Background — Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications pdf Fluid mechanics is an exciting and fascinating subject with unlimited practical applications ranging from microscopic biological systems to automobiles, airplanes, and spacecraft propulsion. Fluid mechanics has also historically been one of the most challenging subjects for undergraduate students because proper analysis of fluid mechanics problems requires not only knowledge of the concepts but also physical intuition and experience.
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Chapter 3 deals with fluid statics and pressure, including manometers and barometers, hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces, buoyancy and stability, and fluids in rigid-body motion. Chapter 4 covers topics related to fluid kinematics, such as the differences between Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flows, flow patterns, flow visualization, vorticity and rotationality, and the Reynolds transport theorem.
Chapter 5 introduces the fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy, with emphasis on the proper use of the mass, Bernoulli, and energy equations and the engineering applications of these equations. Chapter 6 applies the Reynolds transport theorem to linear momentum and angular momentum and emphasizes practical engineering applications of finite control volume momentum analysis.
Chapter 7 reinforces the concept of dimensional homogeneity and introduces the Buckingham Pi theorem of dimensional analysis, dynamic similarity, and the method of repeating variables—material that is useful throughout the rest of the book and in many disciplines in science and engineering.
Chapter 8 is devoted to flow in pipes and ducts. We discuss the differences between laminar and turbulent flow, friction losses in pipes and ducts, and minor losses in piping networks. We also explain how to properly select a pump or fan to match a piping network. Finally, we discuss various experimental devices that are used to measure flow rate and velocity, and provide a brief introduction to biofluid mechanics.
Chapter 9 deals with differential analysis of fluid flow and includes derivation and application of the continuity equation, the Cauchy equation, and the Navier—Stokes equation. We also introduce the stream function and describe its usefulness in analysis of fluid flows, and we provide a brief introduction to biofluids. Finally, we point out some of the unique aspects of differential analysis related to biofluid mechanics. Chapter 10 discusses several approximations of the Navier—Stokes equation and provides example solutions for each approximation, including creeping flow, inviscid flow, irrotational potential flow, and boundary layers.
Chapter 11 covers forces on living and non-living bodies drag and lift , explaining the distinction between friction and pressure drag, and providing drag coefficients for many common geometries.
This chapter emphasizes the practical application of wind tunnel measurements coupled with dynamic similarity and dimensional analysis concepts introduced earlier in Chap. Chapter 12 extends fluid flow analysis to compressible flow, where the behavior of gases is greatly affected by the Mach number. In this chapter, the concepts of expansion waves, normal and oblique shock waves, and choked flow are introduced. Chapter 13 deals with open-channel flow and some of the unique features associated with the flow of liquids with a free surface, such as surface waves and hydraulic jumps.
An emphasis is placed on how pumps and turbines work, rather than on their detailed design. We also discuss overall pump and turbine design, based on dynamic similarity laws and simplified velocity vector analyses.
Chapter 15 describes the fundamental concepts of computational fluid dyamics CFD and shows students how to use commercial CFD codes as tools to solve complex fluid mechanics problems.
Each chapter contains a wealth of end-of-chapter homework problems. Most of the problems that require calculation use the SI system of units; however, about 20 percent use English units. A comprehensive set of appendices is provided, giving the thermodynamic and fluid properties of several materials, in addition to air and water, along with some useful plots and tables. Many of the end-of-chapter problems require the use of material properties from the appendices to enhance the realism of the problems.
The authors believe that the emphasis in undergraduate education should remain on developing a sense of underlying physical mechanisms and a mastery of solving practical problems that an engineer is likely to face in the real world. Developing an intuitive understanding should also make the course a more motivating and worthwhile experience for the students.
After all, the principles of engineering sciences are based on our everyday experiences and experimental observations.
Therefore, a physical, intuitive approach is used throughout this text. It speaks to students, not over students. In fact, it is selfinstructive. Noting that the principles of science are based on experimental observations, most of the derivations in this text are largely based on physical arguments, and thus they are easy to follow and understand.
It contains more figures, photographs, and illustrations than any other book in this category. Figures attract attention and stimulate curiosity and interest. Most of the figures in this text are intended to serve as a means of emphasizing some key concepts that would otherwise go unnoticed; some serve as page summaries. An intuitive and systematic approach is used in the solution of all example problems.
The solution methodology starts with a statement of the problem, and all objectives are identified. The assumptions and approximations are then stated together with their justifications. Any properties needed to solve the problem are listed separately. Numerical values are used together with numbers to emphasize that without units, numbers are meaningless.
This methodical approach is also followed and provided in the solutions to the end-of-chapter problems, available to instructors. Problems under Fundamentals of Engineering FE Exam Problems are designed to help students prepare for the Fundamentals of Engineering exam, as they prepare for their Professional Engineering license. The problems under Review Problems are more comprehensive in nature and are not directly tied to any specific section of a chapter—in some cases they require review of material learned in previous chapters.
Problems designated as Design and Essay are intended to encourage students to make engineering judgments, to conduct independent exploration of topics of interest, and to communicate their findings in a professional manner.
Problems with icon are comprehensive in nature and are intended to be solved with a the computer, using appropriate software. Several economics- and safety-related problems are incorporated throughout to enhance cost and safety awareness among engineering students. Answers to selected problems are listed immediately following the problem for convenience to students.
A student taking both fluid mechanics and heat transfer, for example, has to use the notation Q for volume flow rate in one course, and for heat transfer in the other. Also, we consistently use an overdot to denote time rate. We think that both students and instructors will appreciate this effort to promote a common notation. The property tables and charts in the appendices are presented in both units, except the ones that involve dimensionless quantities.
Therefore, it is important to emphasize the limitations on the use of this idealized equation and to show how to properly account for imperfections and irreversible losses. In Chap. This helps students develop a realistic view of the Bernoulli equation. Recognizing that most undergraduate engineering curriculums do not have room for a full course on CFD, a separate chapter is included here to make up for this deficiency and to equip students with an adequate background on the strengths and weaknesses of CFD.
A unique feature of these special examples is that they are written by guest authors. The Application Spotlights are designed to show students how fluid mechanics has diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Fundamental fluid mechanics terms and concepts appear in red boldface type, and these fundamental terms also appear in a comprehensive end-of-book glossary developed by Professor Emeritus James Brasseur of The Pennsylvania State University. This unique glossary is an excellent learning and review tool for students as they move forward in their study of fluid mechanics.
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