In their decision consistently to apply Latinate language, rather than everyday English, to render religious terminology, the Rheims—Douay translators continued a tradition established by Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner in their criticisms of the biblical translations of William Tyndale. Maps — Eleven coloured maps digitally redrawn by hand and fully coloured. Nevertheless, the official instructions to the King James Bible translators omitted the Rheims version from the list of previous English translations that should be consulted, probably deliberately. The Old Testament volumes were reprinted in but neither thereafter for another hundred years. They offered insights on issues of translation, and on the Hebrew and Greek source texts of the Vulgate. That may be the easiest question I regularly receive since starting this blog.
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And it was here where the Catholic translation of the Bible into English was produced. A run of a few hundred or more of the New Testament, in quarto form not large folio , was published in the last months of Herbert , during a temporary migration of the college to Rheims ; consequently, it has been commonly known as the Rheims New Testament.
Though he died in the same year as its publication, this translation was principally the work of Gregory Martin , formerly Fellow of St.
He was assisted by others at Douai, notably Allen, Richard Bristow , and Thomas Worthington , who proofed and provided notes and annotations. The Old Testament is stated to have been ready at the same time but, for want of funds, it could not be printed until later, after the college had returned to Douai.
It is commonly known as the Douay Old Testament. It was issued as two quarto volumes dated and Herbert Surprisingly these first New Testament and Old Testament editions followed the Geneva Bible not only in their quarto format but also in the use of Roman type. Title page of the Rheims New Testament, transcribed into Modern English "specially for the discovery of the corruptions of divers late translations, and for clearing the controversies in religion. Afterwards it ceased to be of interest to the Anglican church.
Although the cities are now commonly spelled as Douai and as Reims , the Bible continues to be published as the Douay—Rheims Bible and has formed the basis of some later Catholic Bibles in English. Diligently conferred with the Hebrew, Greek and other Editions". The cause of the delay was "our poor state of banishment", but there was also the matter of reconciling the Latin to the other editions.
William Allen went to Rome and worked, with others, on the revision of the Vulgate. The Sixtine Vulgate edition was published in The definitive Clementine text followed in Worthington, responsible for many of the annotations for the and volumes, states in the preface: "we have again conferred this English translation and conformed it to the most perfect Latin Edition. Genesis iii, 15 does not reflect either Vulgate. The Vulgate was largely created due to the efforts of Saint Jerome — , whose translation was declared to be the authentic Latin version of the Bible by the Council of Trent.
While the Catholic scholars "conferred" with the Hebrew and Greek originals, as well as with "other editions in diverse languages",  their avowed purpose was to translate after a strongly literal manner from the Latin Vulgate, for reasons of accuracy as stated in their Preface and which tended to produce, in places, stilted syntax and Latinisms.
The following short passage Ephesians —12 , is a fair example, admittedly without updating the spelling conventions then in use: The Gentiles to be coheires and concorporat and comparticipant of his promise in Christ JESUS by the Gospel: whereof I am made a minister according to the gift of the grace of God, which is given me according to the operation of his power.
To me the least of al the sainctes is given this grace, among the Gentils to evangelize the unsearcheable riches of Christ, and to illuminate al men what is the dispensation of the sacrament hidden from worldes in God, who created all things: that the manifold wisdom of God, may be notified to the Princes and Potestats in the celestials by the Church, according to the prefinition of worldes, which he made in Christ JESUS our Lord.
In whom we have affiance and accesse in confidence, by the faith of him. Other than when rendering the particular readings of the Vulgate Latin, the English wording of the Rheims New Testament follows more or less closely the Protestant version first produced by William Tyndale in , an important source for the Rheims translators having been identified as that of the revision of Tyndale found in an English and Latin diglot New Testament, published by Miles Coverdale in Paris in Consequently, the Rheims New Testament is much less of a new version, and owes rather more to the original languages, than the translators admit in their preface.
Where the Rheims translators depart from the Coverdale text, they frequently adopt readings found in the Protestant Geneva Bible  or those of the Wycliffe Bible, as this latter version had been translated from the Vulgate, and had been widely used by English Catholic churchmen unaware of its Lollard origins.
Many highly regarded translations of the Bible routinely consult Vulgate readings, especially in certain difficult Old Testament passages; but nearly all modern Bible versions, Protestant and Catholic, go directly to original-language Hebrew, Aramaic , and Greek biblical texts as their translation base, and not to a secondary version like the Vulgate.
The translators justified their preference for the Vulgate in their Preface, pointing to accumulated corruptions within the original language manuscripts available in that era, and asserting that Jerome would have had access to better manuscripts in the original tongues that had not survived. In their decision consistently to apply Latinate language, rather than everyday English, to render religious terminology, the Rheims—Douay translators continued a tradition established by Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner in their criticisms of the biblical translations of William Tyndale.
More and Gardiner had argued that Latin terms were more precise in meaning than their English equivalents, and consequently should be retained in Englished form to avoid ambiguity.
However, David Norton observes that the Rheims—Douay version extends the principle much further. In the preface to the Rheims New Testament the translators criticise the Geneva Bible for their policy of striving always for clear and unambiguous readings; the Rheims translators proposed rather a rendering of the English biblical text that is faithful to the Latin text, whether or not such a word-for-word translation results in hard to understand English, or transmits ambiguity from the Latin phrasings: we presume not in hard places to modifie the speaches or phrases, but religiously keepe them word for word, and point for point, for feare of missing or restraining the sense of the holy Ghost to our phantasie Hierom, that in other writings it is ynough to give in translation, sense for sense, but that in Scriptures, lest we misse the sense, we must keep the very wordes.
This adds to More and Gardiner the opposite argument, that previous versions in standard English had improperly imputed clear meanings for obscure passages in the Greek source text where the Latin Vulgate had often tended to rather render the Greek literally, even to the extent of generating improper Latin constructions.
In effect, the Rheims translators argue that, where the source text is ambiguous or obscure, then a faithful English translation should also be ambiguous or obscure, with the options for understanding the text discussed in a marginal note: so, that people must read them with licence of their spiritual superior, as in former times they were in like sort limited.
The translation was prepared with a definite polemical purpose in opposition to Protestant translations which also had polemical motives. Prior to the Douay-Rheims, the only printed English language Bibles available had been Protestant translations.
The translators excluded the apocryphal Psalm , this unusual oversight given the otherwise "complete" nature of the book is explained in passing by the annotations to Psalm that "S. Augustin in the conclusion of his Sermons upon the Psalms, explicateth a mysterie in the number of an hundred and fieftie[.
Not only did Douay-Rheims influence Catholics, but it also had a substantial influence on the later creation of the King James Version. The King James Version is distinguished from previous English Protestant versions by a greater tendency to employ Latinate vocabulary, and the translators were able to find many such terms for example: emulation Romans in the Rheims New Testament.
Consequently, a number of the Latinisms of the Douay—Rheims, through their use in the King James Version, have entered standard literary English. The translators of the Rheims appended a list of these unfamiliar words;  examples include "acquisition", "adulterate", "advent", "allegory", "verity", "calumniate", "character", "cooperate", "prescience", "resuscitate", "victim", and "evangelise".
In addition the editors chose to transliterate rather than translate a number of technical Greek or Hebrew terms, such as " azymes " for unleavened bread, and "pasch" for Passover. Translation[ edit ] The original Douay—Rheims Bible was published during a time when Catholics were being persecuted in Britain and Ireland and possession of the Douay—Rheims Bible was a crime.
By the time possession was not a crime the English of the Douay—Rheims Bible was a hundred years out-of-date. It was thus substantially "revised" between and by Richard Challoner , an English bishop , formally appointed to the deserted see of Debra Doberus.
Challoner not only addressed the odd prose and much of the Latinisms, but produced a version which, while still called the Douay—Rheims, was little like it, notably removing most of the lengthy annotations and marginal notes of the original translators, the lectionary table of gospel and epistle readings for the Mass, and most notably the apocryphal books all of which save Psalm had been included in the original.
At the same time he aimed for improved readability and comprehensibility, rephrasing obscure and obsolete terms and constructions and, in the process, consistently removing ambiguities of meaning that the original Rheims—Douay version had intentionally striven to retain. To me, the least of all the saints, is given this grace, to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ: and to enlighten all men, that they may see what is the dispensation of the mystery which hath been hidden from eternity in God who created all things: that the manifold wisdom of God may be made known to the principalities and powers in heavenly places through the church, according to the eternal purpose which he made in Christ Jesus our Lord: in whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him.
For comparison, the same passage of Ephesians in the King James Version and the Tyndale Version, which influenced the King James Version: That the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel: whereof I was made a minister, according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the effectual working of his power.
Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; and to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: to the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God, according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord: in whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him.
Unto me the least of all saints is this grace given, that I should preach among the gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make all men see what the fellowship of the mystery is which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God which made all things through Jesus Christ, to the intent, that now unto the rulers and powers in heaven might be known by the congregation the manifold wisdom of God, according to that eternal purpose, which he purposed in Christ Jesu our Lord, by whom we are bold to draw near in that trust, which we have by faith on him.
Challoner issued a New Testament edition in He followed this with an edition of the whole bible in , making some further changes to the New Testament. Gone also was the longer paragraph formatting of the text; instead, the text was broken up so that each verse was its own paragraph. The three apocrypha , which had been placed in an appendix to the second volume of the Old Testament, were dropped.
Subsequent editions of the Challoner revision, of which there have been very many, reproduce his Old Testament of with very few changes. Husenbeth in was approved by Bishop Wareing. The Challoner version, officially approved by the Church, remained the Bible of the majority of English-speaking Catholics well into the 20th century.
It was first published in America in by Mathew Carey of Philadelphia. Several American editions followed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, prominent among them an edition published in by the John Murphy Company of Baltimore, with the imprimatur of James Cardinal Gibbons , Archbishop of Baltimore.
In , the John Murphy Company published a new edition with a modified chronology consistent with new findings in Catholic scholarship; in this edition, no attempt was made to attach precise dates to the events of the first eleven chapters of Genesis, and many of the dates calculated in the edition were wholly revised. However, so extensive were these changes, that it was no longer identified as the Douay—Rheims. The Challoner revision ultimately fell out of print by the late s, only coming back into circulation when TAN Books reprinted the Murphy edition in The edition has been reprinted as a facsimile by Lepanto Press and Preserving Christian Publications, while the Douay Bible House edition has been retypeset and reprinted by Loreto Publications.
Names of books[ edit ] The names, numbers, and chapters of the Douay—Rheims Bible and the Challoner revision follow that of the Vulgate and therefore differ from those of the King James Version and its modern successors, making direct comparison of versions tricky in some places. The books called 1 and 2 Esdras in the King James Version are called 3 and 4 Esdras in the Douay, and were classed as apocrypha. A table illustrating the differences can be found here.
The names, numbers, and order of the books in the Douay—Rheims Bible follow those of the Vulgate except that the three apocryphal books are placed after the Old Testament in the Douay—Rheims Bible; in the Clementine Vulgate they come after the New Testament. These three apocrypha are omitted entirely in the Challoner revision.
For details of the differences see the article on the Psalms. A summary list is shown below: Psalm number correspondences.
And it was here where the Catholic translation of the Bible into English was produced. A run of a few hundred or more of the New Testament, in quarto form not large folio , was published in the last months of Herbert , during a temporary migration of the college to Rheims ; consequently, it has been commonly known as the Rheims New Testament. Though he died in the same year as its publication, this translation was principally the work of Gregory Martin , formerly Fellow of St. He was assisted by others at Douai, notably Allen, Richard Bristow , and Thomas Worthington , who proofed and provided notes and annotations. The Old Testament is stated to have been ready at the same time but, for want of funds, it could not be printed until later, after the college had returned to Douai. It is commonly known as the Douay Old Testament.
DOUAY RHEIMS 1899 AMERICAN EDITION PDF