CARGA GLUCEMICA PDF

The GI and the GL of the two formulas resulted in an intermediate value in both groups, with a glycemic profile inferior to SG. Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina. Many aspects related to the association between the ingestion of fats and glycemic control needs further clarifications. Potato dumplings white wheat flour, white potatoes, boiled in salted water Italy.

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Abstract Background: There remains no consensus about the optimal dietary composition for sustained weight loss. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of 2 dietary macronutrient patterns with different glycemic loads on adherence to a prescribed regimen of calorie restriction CR , weight and fat loss, and related variables. All food was provided for 6 mo in diets controlled for confounding variables, and subjects self-administered the plans for 6 additional months.

Primary and secondary outcomes included energy intake measured by doubly labeled water, body weight and fatness, hunger, satiety, and resting metabolic rate. There was no effect of dietary composition on changes in hunger, satiety, or satisfaction with the amount and type of provided food during CR. Conclusions: These findings provide more detailed evidence to suggest that diets differing substantially in glycemic load induce comparable long-term weight loss.

Calorie restriction CR remains the cornerstone of most weight-management strategies, but there remains no consensus over the role of dietary macronutrient composition in optimizing long-term weight loss. In part, the lack of consensus probably reflects the fact that most studies in this area have provided dietary advice, rather than food, with resulting uncertainty in the true extent of dietary change. For example, recent studies have examined whether low-carbohydrate or low-glycemic-load GL diets facilitate greater long-term weight loss than do conventional recommendations based on national dietary guidelines 4 , 5 ; most 6 — 10 , but not all 11 , of the studies reported transiently greater weight loss at 6 mo in individuals consuming low-carbohydrate or low-GL diets that was attenuated in studies continuing to 12 mo 8 , However, unbiased assessments of adherence to the tested regimens were not performed, and there may have been differences between tested diets that influenced the results.

It is recognized that dietary change in the absence of provided food is difficult because of formidable barriers, such as the need to alter central lifestyle factors such as established shopping and cooking habits and food preferences 12 — For this reason, perhaps, subjects tend to inflate self-reports of the magnitude of dietary change Moreover, in most of the reports of high- compared with low-carbohydrate regimens and weight loss, differential behavioral support was given to each treatment group because they were testing popular diet prescriptions rather than specifically different dietary compositions, which confounded the results 8 , 11 , Thus, additional studies that use more detailed and consistent methods are needed to resolve the effects of different dietary patterns on long-term weight loss.

During this first phase, independent studies were conducted at the different sites. Eligibility for the Tufts study was determined on the basis of a normal health-history questionnaire and a screening examination that included blood and urine tests, physical and psychological examinations, and assessment of anticipated lifestyle changes, such as pregnancy or moving out of the area.

All subjects gave written informed consent before participating and were provided with a stipend. The study was independently monitored annually for overall compliance and data accuracy by an external clinical trial monitor from the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, and the safety and efficacy of the clinical trial were monitored by a Data Safety Monitoring Board.

Study protocol As shown in Figure 1 , this yearlong intervention study included a 7-wk baseline period phase 1 , during which time the subjects were requested to maintain a stable weight and continue eating their usual diet. Baseline weight-maintenance energy requirements [assumed to be equal to total energy expenditure TEE , as measured by doubly labeled water 19 ] and key outcome variables were assessed. The subjects were expected to visit the research center weekly throughout the study for a variety of activities, including weekly behavioral support groups, individual meetings with the study dietitian, safety monitoring, and outcome testing.

Open in new tab Download slide Flow of study participants from screening through study completion. HG, high glycemic load; LG, low glycemic load. Diet compositions are summarized in Table 1 for the HG and LG diets, and a list of actual foods that were provided for each type of diet is included in Appendix A.

Both diets had consistent features designed to promote CR, including meeting DRIs for dietary fiber 4 , limited inclusion of high-energy-density foods 20 , limited liquid calories 21 , and a relatively high variety of low-energy-density foods eg, fruit and vegetables , and a relatively low variety of high-energy-dense foods Because all 3 macronutrients varied between the diets, the study outcomes are most appropriately attributed to different dietary patterns.

Please note that, although it was technically possible to change the GL of the diets by changing just the carbohydrate and fat contents and leaving protein constant , it would have been hard to control other factors between the diets, including palatability and energy density.

With the chosen approach, it was possible to match the diets for dietary variety and palatability [assessed by using a visual analogue scale VAS during a pilot test of the diets].

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