Si diploma come maestro, durante la guerra civile del si dedica al recupero di ragazzi abbandonati e delinquenti minorenni. Fonda la prima colonia di lavoro, chiamata colonia Gorky in cui inizia la sua esperienza di pedagogista ed educatore sovietico, inculcando il senso del dovere e una disciplina militaresca. Nel assume la vicedirezione della sezione delle colonie di lavoro ucraine e si afferma la sua dottrina pedagogica, accettata anche dalla critica sovietica come modello educativo. Muore improvvisamente nel
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In August he enrolled into the Poltava Training College but had to interrupt his education and in September joined the Russian army which he was demobilized from in March , due to poor eyesight. A year later it became the Gorky Colony and soon attracted the attention of Maxim Gorky himself. In Makarenko published two articles on the Gorky Colony in Golos Truda newspaper and Novimy Stezhkami magazine and two years later made a public report at the All-Ukrainian Conference for the orphanage teachers.
Makarenko succeeded in gaining their respect, combining in his method insistence and respect, school education and productive labor. In March his report at the Ukrainian Pedagogical institute concerning his work in the Gorky Colony received hostile treatment.
In September of that year he was fired from the Gorky Colony, and had to concentrate on his work in Kharkov. In the famous writer visited the two colonies and left much impressed; next year in an essay called "Over the Union of Soviets" he hailed Makarenko as "the new type of pedagogue.
In he became a member of the Soviet Union of Writers. In he was appointed the head of another colony, in Brovary , and in less than a year turned an unruly bunch of pupils into a highly disciplined working collective.
He was buried in Moscow, at the Novodevichy Cemetery. Among his key ideas were "as much exigence towards the person as possible and as much respect for him as possible", the use of positive peer pressure on the individual by the collective , and institutionalized self-government and self-management of that collective.
Major Мажор, ; play March of the 30th Year Марш го года, , novella FD—1 novella, subtitled "A sketch"; written in , published posthumously The Pedagogical Poem Педагогическая поэма, —, three-part novel The Book for Parents Книга для родителей, ; non-fiction Honour Честь, —; novella.
Antón Semiónovich Makárenko. Poema pedagógico
Antón Makárenko: biografía, teorías pedagógicas, aportes, obras