ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CEDRUS DEODARA PDF

Published online Aug Find articles by Hong Gao Nancy D. Received Jul 19; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Recently, we reported that a novel phenolic compound isolated from Cedrus deodara, 3-p-trans-coumaroylhydroxyquinic acid CHQA , exhibits a potent antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHQA against eleven food-borne pathogens and to elucidate its mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus.

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Various part of the plant has enormous uses, wood extract is carminative, diaphoretic and antipyretic, and has also been used to treat flatulence, rheumatism, piles, kidney stone, pulmonary and urinary disorder. Bark extract is used as astringent and also useful for treating fever, diarrheoa and dysentery. The oleoresin of deodar and the dark colored oil obtained from the wood are valued for their application for ulcers and skin diseases.

Being non-toxic to mammals, it is used to control house hold insects in place of pyretherin. Sizable quantities of wood are used for distillation purpose which is used worldwide in the soap industry and also reported to have the property of protection against moths and beetles and toxicity and resistance properties of wood against termites.

This is the first report of the occurrence of these compounds in plant. From lead acetate purified butanol soluble fraction of wood of cedrus deodara two lignans were isolated. The chemical composition of C. To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity, all volatile oils were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Extract and oil obtained from the root, stem, and leaf of plant were tested against E. Both the oil and extract shows significant inhibition of the test organism. KD50 0. Plant is enriched with qualities like pleasant odor, low cost, abundant availability of raw material and high potency against mosquitoes. These results make us to investigate further the insecticidal principle of Himalayan cedarwood oil. Chromatographic fractions of Himalayan Cedarwood oil were bioassayed against the Pulse beetle Callosobruchus analis F.

Almost all fractions showed insecticidal activity against both the test species. Fruit powder of Embelia ribes in combination with Azadirachta indica and Cedrus deodara oil with synergists MGK, piperonyl butoxide PB in binary and tertiary combinations. Combination of these three was more toxic with respect to the single treatment of the plant-dervied molluscides.

Combination in the ratio of of Lawsonia inermis seed powder with Cedrus deodora oil and Embelia ribes fruit powder against Lymnaea acuminate revealed maximum inhibition against Lymnea acuminate. Cone showed 13 and 14mm zone of inhibition and leaf exhibited 12 and 14mm of inhibition respectively. Methodology applied was broth dilution method and ampicillin was taken as positive control, which exhibit 14mm of zone inhibition. The heart wood extracts of Cedrus deodara ALCD was studied for anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity by three experimental models namely Elevated plus maze test, Light dark model, locomotor activity by actophotometer and anticonvulsant activity was studied by using Pentylene tetrazole induced convulsions and Maximal electro shock induced convulsions and pretreatment with ALCD followed by estimation of GABA in rat brain tissues was performed to study the effect of ALCD on GABA levels of brain.

The elevated plus maze is currently one of the most widely used models of animal anxiety. These results suggests that, extract administration could reduce the aversion fear and produce anxiolytic activity. GABA appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders.

Many of the traditional agents used to treat psychiatric disorders are known to act, at least in part, by enhancing GABA activity, while some of the newer agents may exert their therapeutic effects exclusively via GABAergic actions. It was reported to possess CNS depressant and neuroleptic activity. Further ethanol extract was subjected for physiochemical screening. From phytochemical screening Cedrus deodora woods gave positive result for thr presence of glycosides, tannins, fixed oils, flavanoids, and triterpenoids.

Preformulation studies were carried out for the investigation of physicochemical character of a drug substances alone and when combined with excipients. The overall objective of preformulation testing was to generate information useful in developing stable and bio available dosage form. In PF1 with lactose and PF2 with starch granules were not found. Formulation PF3 with microcrystalline cellulose shown formation of granules and granules were further evaluated for physical character and in vitro studies.

The in vitro drug release studies of formulation PF3 showed The C. The formulation F3 per capsule: crude extract mg, micro crystalline cellulose mg, dicalcium phosphate The capsule prepared from the wood extract of the plant, above mentioned formula was subjected to in vivo studies, such as, acute toxicity and antidiabetic which revealed that the study had a vital role in the management of diabetes.

Fractionation and purification was done of dried heartwood powder of C. The chloroform extract showed strong antioxidant activity on 1, 1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH free radical.

This fraction was then forwarded to separation and purification using silica gel column chromatography. In sodium oxalate treated rats, crystal was observed in urine under light microscope and elevation of serum parameters indicated the development of nephrolithiasis in the control group.

Administration of PECD for 10 days along with inducing agent i. Histology study shows that PECD treatement had protected against sodium oxalate induced nephrolithiasis. So from the above study, it was concluded that the plant has great potential to inhibit stone formation.

The pharmacological studies of himachalol on various isolated smooth muscles rat uterus, guinea pig seminal vesicle, and guinea pig ileum and rabbit jejunum and against different agonists acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, nicotine, and barium chloride indicated spasmolytic activity similar to that of papaverine. It has potent antagonist activity against barium chloride-induced spasm of guinea pig ileum than papaverine but less effective in case of rabbit jejunum and had no relaxing effect alone.

Effectiveness of papaverine in antagonizing epinephrine-induced contraction of the guinea pig seminal vesicle was less than himachalol but himachalol was devoid of spasmolytic effect on the bronchial musculature of guinea pig. It was reported that volatile oil showed significant anti-secretory activity as evidenced by decreased gastric fluid volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats and this study revealed that pretreatment with Cedrus deodara significantly reduced the number of ulcer, ulcer score and ulcer index in pylorus-ligated and ethanol treated rats.

In carrageenan induced inflammation utilizing the technique of Winter et al [49] The animals were injected with 0. Anti-infammatory activity was further evaluated using granuloma pouch and cotton pellet method. On the other hand C. But the anti-inflammatory activity of Cedrus deodara did not show significant inhibition of Tuberculin rxn. The anti-inflammatory activity of C. Similarly, adjuvant arthritis was induced in animals by injecting 0.

Incidence of gastric ulcer was maximum with betamethasone and minimum with C. The plant has also shown wound healing properties and is particularly useful in infective wounds. This mixture was evaluated for its in vitro anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of CD lignan mixture was studied using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and colon carcinoma CA models in mice.

Also effect was studied on annexin V binding, intracellular caspases and DNA fragmentation to gain insight into the mode of action. Wood chips of plant were used to obtain essential oil. Adults of A. Plant shows moderate activity against these two mosquitos.

It also inhibits the enzyme lipooxygenase, key factor to cause edema at a conc. Thus, C. Further himachalol which is isolated from the wood part of the plant is also used in asthma, having the property of mast cell stabilization. Likewise, himachalol is one of the major constituent which is reported to have potent anti-allergic property. The oil shows significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced oedema in rats. It was devoid of analgesic, sedative and motor in coordinating activities in mice.

However, pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis was significantly increases due to inhibition of drug metabolizing enzyme. This oil is being used orally as anti-ulcer agent by Hakeems. Mammalian toxicity was determined, by oral administration, against albino rats Wister strain.

The LD50 by probit mortality graph was found to be Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though public do the carry risk of taking allopathic medicine instead of herbal treatments. As outlined above, results from various studies indicated that C. Further, clinical studies can be conducted, as well as studies in multiple animal-based models using a variety of suitable biochemical markers to understand its mechanism of action.

It is also important for isolation and much more effective when given in combination with other herbs. Conflict of interest: There are no conflicts of interest. Evaluating the case for conserving species. In: Gaston KJ.

J Ethnopharmacol. First Edition ; Int J Alt compl med. Pharmaceutical Press, 2nd edition Jain SK: Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep publication, India. New Delhi, Volume I, ; International book Distributors, Dehradun, ; Mukherjee PK: Exploring botanicals in Indian systems of medicine- regulatory perspectives. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs. Nature and Science. London: Royal Botanic Gardens. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States.

In: Schopmeyer CS. Agriculture Handbook. Conifers: morphology and variation. Croatia: Graficki Zavod Hrvatske. World Intellectual Property Organisation.

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Goltinris Call for papers-November For Support Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact meI am happy to help you: The extracted materials was then kept in water bath to evaporate solvent totally and Department of then kept on a rotary shaker at rpm for 6 h to make the final Kayachikitsa, Faculty volume one fourth of the original volume and stored at 40C in airtight of Ayurveda, Institute bottles. Antibacterial activity of oils of cedrus deodara and ricinus communis Two types of methods were used i. University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus 3. Varanasi for providing guidelines in writing of manuscript. Wang J and Xie P. Cedrus deodara and Hemidesmus indicus Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants samples.

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Int J Mol Sci. Published online Nov Find articles by Hong Gao Sanjay K. Received Sep 7; Accepted Nov 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Shikimic acid SA has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the mode of action of SA is still elusive. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of SA toward S.

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Various part of the plant has enormous uses, wood extract is carminative, diaphoretic and antipyretic, and has also been used to treat flatulence, rheumatism, piles, kidney stone, pulmonary and urinary disorder. Bark extract is used as astringent and also useful for treating fever, diarrheoa and dysentery. The oleoresin of deodar and the dark colored oil obtained from the wood are valued for their application for ulcers and skin diseases. Being non-toxic to mammals, it is used to control house hold insects in place of pyretherin. Sizable quantities of wood are used for distillation purpose which is used worldwide in the soap industry and also reported to have the property of protection against moths and beetles and toxicity and resistance properties of wood against termites.

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Malhotra, A. Ghildiyal and P. Chandola Dept. Different antibiotics were also included as a positive control against bacterial strains used. Cinnamomum zeylanicum was found effective against all the bacterial strains used and one of the fungi used. Cedrus deodara showed moderate antibacterial activity against six of the strains used.

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