A set of eighteen currently nineteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah Hebrew , "standing [prayer]" , is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra , at the end of the Biblical period. The name Shemoneh Esreh, literally "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. Even at that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe that parts of the Amidah came from the Hebrew apocryphal work Ben Sira.
|Published (Last):||3 June 2005|
|PDF File Size:||15.63 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||15.14 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
A set of eighteen currently nineteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah Hebrew , "standing [prayer]" , is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra , at the end of the Biblical period.
The name Shemoneh Esreh, literally "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. Even at that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe that parts of the Amidah came from the Hebrew apocryphal work Ben Sira.
According to the Talmud , soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne , under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues.
However, the precise wording was still left open. The order, general ideas, opening and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader. It was not until several centuries later that the prayers began to be formally fixed.
By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, and in the form in which they are still used today. The siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as , though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns. Half a century later Rav Saadia Gaon , also of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic.
Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah : this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some influence on other rites.
From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had the same basic order and contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century; siddurim have also been published reflecting the views of Jacob Emden and the Vilna Gaon. In some cases, however, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales.
Some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be very overtly kabbalistic , depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah that is printed in the outline of a menorah , and the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm. The Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot "To You, God, is the greatness [gedullah], and the might [gevurah], and the glory [tiferet], longevity [netzach], It is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is usually sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm.
The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though usually ethnically Ashkenazi, usually use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari , in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria , often called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion". Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borrowed many elements from Sephardi and other traditions, since he felt that they followed Kabbalah and Halacha more faithfully.
The Ari did not publish any siddur, but orally transmitted his particular usages to his students with interpretations and certain meditations. In , Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi compiled an authoritative siddur from the sixty siddurim that he checked for compliance with Hebrew grammar, Jewish law, and Kabbalah: this is what is known today as the "Nusach Ari", and is used by Lubavitch Hasidim.
Those that use Nusach HaAri claim that it is an all-encompassing nusach that is valid for any Jew, no matter what his ancestral tribe or identity, a view attributed to the Maggid of Mezeritch. The Mahzor of each rite is distinguished by hymns piyyutim composed by authors payyetanim. In the case of Nusach HaAri, however, many of these High Holiday piyyutim are absent: the older piyyutim were not present in the Sephardic rite, on which Nusach HaAri was based, and the followers of the Ari removed the piyyutim composed by the Spanish school.
Complete and weekday siddurim[ edit ] Some siddurim have only prayers for weekdays; others have prayers for weekdays and Shabbat. Many have prayers for weekdays, Shabbat, and the three Biblical festivals, Sukkot the feast of Tabernacles , Shavuot the feast of weeks and Pesach Passover.
The latter are referred to as a Siddur Shalem "complete siddur". Variations and additions on holidays[ edit ] There are many additional liturgical variations and additions to the siddur for the Yamim Noraim The "Days of Awe"; High Holy Days, i.
Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. As such, a special siddur has developed for just this period, known as a mahzor also: machzor. The mahzor contains not only the basic liturgy, but also many piyutim, Hebrew liturgical poems. Sometimes the term mahzor is also used for the prayer books for the three pilgrim festivals, Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot. This siddur is usually called "Kinot" as well. So after the fast ends, many traditions place their Kinot siddurim in a geniza , or a burial place for sacred texts.
Popular siddurim[ edit ] Below are listed many popular siddurim used by religious Jews. This list mostly excludes prayer books specifically for the High Holidays; see Machzor Popular versions.
Variety of popular Siddurim.
Born into a large New York Sephardi family. Western Sephardim also known more ambiguously as "Spanish and Portuguese Jews", "Spanish Jews", "Portuguese Jews" and "Jews of the Portuguese Nation" are the community of Jewish ex-conversos whose families initially remained in Spain and Portugal as ostensible New Christians , that is, as Anusim or "forced [converts]". Henry Kamen and Joseph Perez estimate that of the total Jewish origin population of Spain at the time of the issuance of the Alhambra Decree, those who chose to remain in Spain represented the majority, up to , of a total Jewish origin population of , Furthermore, a significant number returned to Spain in the years following the expulsion, on condition of converting to Catholicism, the Crown guaranteeing they could recover their property at the same price at which it was sold. Discrimination against this large community of conversos nevertheless remained, and those who secretly practiced the Jewish faith specifically suffered severe episodes of persecution by the Inquisition. The last episode of persecution occurred in the midth century. External migrations out of the Iberian peninsula coincided with these episodes of increased persecution by the Inquisition.
The ArtScroll Sephardic Siddur - Schottenstein Edition
Sephardic Orot Siddur - Shabbat