His bold leadership, military experience, and determination brought a measure of discipline to the dissolute colonists; his negotiations with the Indians prevented starvation; and his dispersal of the colony from unhealthy Jamestown lowered mortality. After his return to England, his promotional writings contributed significantly to English efforts for an American empire. After more improbable episodes, including three victories in duels, he was captured and enslaved. Smith killed his master and then wandered through eastern Europe and sailed briefly to Morocco before returning to England in

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With divers others to the number of Their first Plantation. Touching the most remarkeable things of the Country and our proceeding from the The utmost of our discovery Southward was Secotan as we esteemed To the Northward our farthest was to a Towne of the Chesapeacks, from Roanoack The passage is very shallow and dangerous by reason of the breadth of the sound and the little succour for a storme, but this teritory being There be sundry other Kings they call Weroances as the Mangoacks, Trypaniks, and Opposians, which came to visit us.

The King is lame, but hath more understanding then all the rest. This lame King is called Menatonon. This king was at Chawonock two yeares agoe to trade with blacke pearle, his worst sort whereof I had a rope, but they were naught; but that King he sayth hath store of white, and had trafficke with white men, for whom he reserved them; he promised me guides to him, but advised me to goe strong, for he was unwilling strangers should come in his Country, for his Country is populous and valiant men.

If a supply had come in Aprill, I resolved to have sent a small Barke to the Northward to have found it, whilest I with small Boates and Very neare unto it is the river of Moratoc, directly from the West, the head of it springeth out of a mayne Rocke, which standeth so neare the Sea, that in stormes the Sea beats over it into this fresh spring, that of it selfe at the surse is a violent streame. I intended with two Wherries and fortie persons to have Menatonons sonne for guide, to try this presently, till I could meete with some of the Moratocks, or Mangoaks, but hoping of getting more victuall from the Salvages, we as narrowly escaped starving in that Discovery as ever men did.

Pemissapan his trechery. The discovery of the river Moratoc. But being thus farre on my journey The strange Mine of Chaunis Temoatan. Though I did forsee the danger and misery, yet the desire I had to see the Mangoaks was, for that there is a province called Chaunis Temoatan, frequented by them and well knowne to all those Countries, where is a mine of Copper they call Wassador; they say they take it out of a river that falleth swiftly from high rocks in shallow water, in great Bowles, covered with leather, leaving a part open to receive the mettall, which by the change of the colour of the water where the spout falleth, they suddainly chop downe, and have the Bowie full, which they cast into the fire, it presently melteth, and doth yeeld in five parts at the first melting two parts mettall for three of Ore.

The Mangoaks have such plenty of it, they beautifie their houses with great plates thereof: this the Salvages report; and young Skiko the King of Chawonnocks sonne my prisoner, that had beene prisoner among the Mangoaks, but never at Chaunis Temoatan, for he sayd that was twentie dayes journey overland from the Mangoaks. The great current of the river Moratoc.

After our two dayes journey, and our victuals spent, in the evening we heard some call as we thought Manteo, who was with me in the boat; this made us glad, he made them a friendly answer, which they answered with a song we thought for welcome, but he told us they came to fight.

Presently they did let flie their Arrowes about the boat, but did no hurt, the other boat scouring the shore we landed: but they all were fled, and how to finde them wee knew not. I conclude a good Mine, or the South sea will make this Country quickly inhabited, and so for pleasure and profit comparable with any in the world: otherwise there will be nothing worth the fetching. Provided there be found a better harbour then yet there is, which must be Northward if there be any.

The Conspiricy of Pemissapan. But in the beginning of this brute, when [I. But that which wrought the most feare among them was the handy-worke of Almightie God. For certaine dayes after my returne, Menatonon sent messengers to me with Pearle, and Okisco King of Weopomeoke, to yeeld himselfe servant to the Queene of England.

Okisco with twenty-foure of his principall men came to Pemissapan to acknowledge this dutie and subjection, and would performe it. All which so changed the heart of Pemissapan, that upon the advise of Ensenore, when we were ready to famish they came and made us wires, and planted their fields they intended to abandon we not having one corne till the next harvest to sustaine us.

Yet they got Okisco our tributary to get seven or eight hundred and the Mandoages with the Chisapeans should doe the like to meete as their custome is to solemnize the Funerall of Ensenore. Halfe of whom should lye hid, to cut off the straglers, seeking crabs and provision: the rest come out of the mayne upon the Signall by fire.

Twenty of the principall of Pemissapans men had charge in the night to beset my house, put fire in the Reeds that covered it, which might cause me run out so naked and amazed, they might without danger knocke out my braines. The same order for Mr. Heriots, and the rest: for all should have beene fired at an instant.

In the meane time they should sell us nothing, and in the night spoyle our wires, to make necessitie disperse us. For if we were but ten together, a hundred of them would not meddle with us. So our famine increased, I was forced to send Captaine Stafford to Croatan, with twentie to feed himselfe, and see if he could espie any sayle passe the coast; Mr.

Predeox with ten to Hatarask upon the same occasion: and other small parties to the Mayne to live upon rootes and Oysters. A slaughter of two Salvages. These troubles caused me send to Pemissapan, to put suspition in his head, I was to goe presently to Croatan to meete a Fleete came to me, though I knew no such matter: and that he would lend me men to fish and hunt.

He sent me word he would come himselfe to Roanock; but delaying time eight dayes that all his men were there to be assembled, not liking so much company, I resolved the next day to goe visit him, but first to give them in the Ile a Canvisado, and at an instant to seaze on all their Canows about the Ile. But the towne tooke the Alarum before I ment it. Upon this they to their Bowes, and we to our Armes: three or foure of them at the first were slaine, the rest fled into the woods.

The next morning I went to Dassamonpeack, and sent Pemissapan word I was going to Croatan, and tooke him in my way to complaine Osocon would have stole my prisoner Skico. A most generous courtesie of Sir Francis Drake. The next day came to me himselfe of whom I must say this, from the first to the last, he neither spared labour, or perill by land or sea, fayre weather, or foule, to performe any serious service committed to him.

All this being made ready for me, suddenly arose such a storme for foure dayes, that had like to have driven the whole Fleete on shore: many of them were forced to the Sea, whereof my ship so lately given me was one, with all my provision and Company appoynted.

Notwithstanding, the storme ceasing, the Generall appointed me a ship of Yet they durst not undertake to bring her into, the harbour, but she must ride in the road, leaving the care of the rest to my selfe, advising me to consider with my Company what was fittest, and with my best speed returne him answer.

Virginia abandoned. Written by Mr. Ralph Layne, Governour. The Observations of Mr. Thomas Heriot in this Voyage. For Merchandize and Victualls. Commodities What before is writ, is also confirmed by that learned Mathematician Mr. For Dyes, Showmack, the herbe Wasebur, little rootes called Chapacor, and the barke of a tree called by the Inhabitants Tangomockonominge, which are for divers sorts of Reds.

A strange Salt. What more then is related is an herbe in Dutch called Melden, described like an Orange, growing foure foote [I.

Of their Tobacco we found plenty, which they esteeme their chiefe Physicke. Cassavia growes in Marishes, which the Indians oft use for bread and broth. Habascon is like a Parsnip, naught of it selfe, except compounded: and their Leekes like those in England. Fruits thats strange. Beasts extraordinary. Saquenuckot and Maquowoc, two kinde of beasts, greater then Conies, and very good meate; in some places such plenty of gray Conies, like hayres, that all the people make them mantels of their skins.

I have the names of There is plentie of Sturgeon in February, March, Aprill, and May; all Herings in abundance; some such as ours, but the most part of I have the names in their language of Their woods are such as ours in England for the most part, except Rakeock, a great sweet tree, whereof they make their Canowes: and Ascopo, a kinde of tree like Lowrell, and Saxefras. Their Natures and Manners. Their Clothing, Townes, Houses, Warres, Arts, Tooles, handy crafts, and educations, are much like them in that part of Virginia we now inhabite: which at large you may reade in the Description thereof.

But the relation of their Religion is strange, as this Author reporteth. Their Religion.


John Smith Journals

To my deare friend by true Vertue ennobled Captaine Iohn Smith. MOre then enough I cannot thee commend: Whose both abilities and Loue doe tend So to advance the good of that Estate, By English charge, and Planters propagate Through heapes of painfull hazards; in the first Of which, that Colony thy Care hath nurst. Which well appeares; considering the while Thou governedst, nor force of theirs, ne guile Lessend a man of thine; but since I rue In Brittish blood they deeply did imbrue Their Heathen hands. And truth to say we see, Our selues wee lost, vntimely leaving Thee.


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With divers others to the number of Their first Plantation. Touching the most remarkeable things of the Country and our proceeding from the The utmost of our discovery Southward was Secotan as we esteemed To the Northward our farthest was to a Towne of the Chesapeacks, from Roanoack The passage is very shallow and dangerous by reason of the breadth of the sound and the little succour for a storme, but this teritory being There be sundry other Kings they call Weroances as the Mangoacks, Trypaniks, and Opposians, which came to visit us.

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