Le conoscenze chiare, a loro volta, possono essere confuse, quando del contenuto percepito non siamo in grado di isolare le singole componenti, o distinte quando possiamo individuarne un certo numero. Infine, una conoscenza и simbolica se mediata da simboli o segni, intuitiva se il suo contenuto и colto direttamente senza mediazioni. Se in Leibniz la classificazione delle conoscenze rimanda comunque a un gradualismo conoscitivo privo di soluzioni di continuitа, il problema che occuperа tutta la gnoseologia successiva, e in particolare Wolff e Baumgarten, sarа quello dei limiti delle varie forme di conoscenza, o, meglio, del suddividersi del continuum della conoscenza umana in ambiti differenti e diversamente caratterizzati quanto alla loro perfezione e perfettibilitа. In particolare, quella che viene progressivamente delineandosi и una divisione tra conoscenza sensibile, fatta di rappresentazioni chiare e distinte.
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Biography[ edit ] Baumgarten was born in Berlin as the fifth of seven sons of the pietist pastor of the garrison , Jacob Baumgarten, and of his wife Rosina Elisabeth.
Both his parents died early, and he was taught by Martin Georg Christgau where he learned Hebrew and became interested in Latin poetry. With the development of art as a commercial enterprise linked to the rise of a nouveau riche class across Europe, the purchasing of art inevitably led to the question, "what is good art?
Baumgarten developed aesthetics to mean the study of good and bad " taste ", thus good and bad art, linking good taste with beauty. By trying to develop an idea of good and bad taste, he also in turn generated philosophical debate around this new meaning of aesthetics.
Without it, there would be no basis for aesthetic debate as there would be no objective criterion, basis for comparison, or reason from which one could develop an objective argument. Views on aesthetics[ edit ] Aesthetica by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Baumgarten appropriated the word aesthetics, which had always meant "sensation", to mean taste or "sense" of beauty. In so doing, he gave the word a different significance, thereby inventing its modern usage.
The word had been used differently since the time of the ancient Greeks to mean the ability to receive stimulation from one or more of the five bodily senses.
Such a judgment of taste he saw as based on feelings of pleasure or displeasure. A science of aesthetics would be, for Baumgarten, a deduction of the rules or principles of artistic or natural beauty from individual "taste". The Germans are the only people who presently have come to use the word aesthetic[s] to designate what others call the critique of taste. They are doing so on the basis of a false hope conceived by that superb analyst Baumgarten.
He hoped to bring our critical judging of the beautiful under rational principles, and to raise the rules for such judging to the level of a lawful science. Yet that endeavor is futile. For, as far as their principal sources are concerned, those supposed rules or criteria are merely empirical. Hence they can never serve as determinate a priori laws to which our judgment of taste must conform. It is, rather, our judgment of taste which constitutes the proper test for the correctness of those rules or criteria.
Because of this it is advisable to follow either of two alternatives. One of these is to stop using this new name aesthetic[s] in this sense of critique of taste, and to reserve the name aesthetic[s] for the doctrine of sensibility that is true science.
In doing so we would also come closer to the language of the ancients and its meaning. The other alternative would be for the new aesthetic[s] to share the name with speculative philosophy. We would then take the name partly in its transcendental meaning, and partly in the psychological meaning. Critique of Pure Reason , A 21, note. For Kant, an aesthetic judgment is subjective in that it relates to the internal feeling of pleasure or displeasure and not to any qualities in an external object.
In , Leo Tolstoy , in his What is Art? Truth is the perfect perceived by reason. The good is the perfect attained by the moral will. And art became, not the important thing it was intended to be, but the empty amusement of idle people. What is Art? Georg Friedrich Meier translated the Metaphysics from Latin to German, an endeavour which - according to Meier - Baumgarten himself had planned, but could not find the time to execute.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb