Scientific Name s : Ephedra equisetina Bge. Common Name s : Ephedra, Ma huang, Pinellia, Yellow astringent, Yellow horse Clinical Overview Use The whole Ephedra sinica plant has traditionally been used to treat symptoms of bronchial asthma, colds, influenza, allergies, and hives in teas or tinctures. Because of adverse events and lack of efficacy, use is not recommended for weight loss or increased athletic performance. Ephedra-containing supplements are banned for sale in the United States. Dosing Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are currently banned in the United States. Contraindications Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events have been documented in case reports.
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Abstract Ephedra foliata Boiss. A method for micropropagation of E. Explant produces 5. Maximum number of shoots The micropropagated plants were hardened in the green house.
The described protocol can be applicable for i large scale plant production ii establishment of plants in natural habitat and iii germplasm conservation of this endemic Gymnosperm of arid regions. In India, it is locally known as Unth phog. The fleshy bracts of the fruits used as emergency food during the times of scarcity in arid regions Bhandari ; Kotia Fruits of E.
It also contains non protein amino acid with cyclopropyl ring structure and several nitrogenous secondary compounds Kynurenates which are known to show strong pharmacological actions on sympathetic nervous system of mammals Caveney et al. Conventionally, this plant is propagated through seeds; however, E. The gender of the seed-raised plant is known only after it bears cones. High value of the plant in nutraceutical market Kamboj is the cause of its unsustainable exploitation by which set adverse pressure on its wild stock.
Extensive habitat destruction, very slow growth, poor reproductive system and over grazing are other causes by which status of this plant is drastically affected. This endemic plant has now become rare or endangered species Khan et al.
Therefore, a large scale propagation of this plant is a pre-requisite to meet the pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals needs and for its consevation. The in vitro work carried on E. Survey of literature reveals that no attempt has been made to develop a protocol for in vitro propagation of E.
Received: 01 February Accepted: 08 February Published: 28 February Abstract: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Ephedra alata indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Ephedra species contain alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine. Beside the E- type alkaloids, ephedroxane, and macrocyclic spermidines called ephedradine A-D, were isolated from some Ephedra species. The total amount of alkaloids isolated from Ephedra alata aerial parts was 0. Ephedra foliata also produced ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The total alkaloids contents of Ephedra foliata ephedrine and psudoephedrine were 0. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that Ephedra species possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular effects.
EPPO Global Database