He was the only son of Ukkirapandi Thevar and Indiraniammal. His mother died before his first birthday. From onwards he was in the custody of his maternal grandmother Parvathiammal in the neighbouring village of Kallupatti. First he was given private tuition and in June he began attending classes at an elementary school run by American missionaries in Kamuthi.
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He was elected thrice to parliment. He hailed from a wealthy landlord family. Thevar was the only son of Ukkirapandi Thevar and Indirani.
He had one sister, Janaki. His mother died before his first birthday and his stepmother the next year. From onwards he was in the custody of his maternal grandmother Parvathiammal in the neighbouring village of Kallupatti. During his youth, Thevar was aided by Kuzhanthaisami Pillai. Thevar would however, not complete his studies. The following year he also missed his chance to attend the final examinations, as he returned to Pasumpon to fight a legal battle over issues of inheritance of family property.
Srinivasa Iyengar during the disputes of family inheritance. Iyengar advised Thevar to participate in the annual conference of the Indian National Congress in Madras Thevar was very impressed by Bose. He began to adopt a simple and strict lifestyle, as well as interacting all castes in the local communities.
As an apprentice of S. Srinivasa Iyengar, Thevar was increasingly involved in the political activities of the Indian National Congress. Moreover he led temperance campaigns in Kallupatti, Mudukulathur and Kodhumazhur. His activities angered the colonial authorities, and he was jailed on several occasions. After his entry into politics, Thevar began to mobilize resistance to the CTA. He toured villages in the affected areas and led protest rallies for the rights of the individuals registered under the CTA.
Thevar led a massive campaign in the villages, urging the people to defy the CTA. The authorities partially withdrew, and reduced the number of CTA registrations in the concerned areas from around to just A committee consisting of Thevar, Dr. Varadarajulu Naidu, Perumal Thevar, Sasivarna Thevar and Navaneethakrishna Thevar was appointed by the convention to carry on the efforts to persuade the government to revoke the Act.
The CTA was, however, not revoked. On the contrary, its implementation was widened. Thevar again led agitations and awareness-raising campaigns against the Act. He contested the election to the Ramnad District Board from the Muthukulathur constituency, defeating his Justice Party opponent. After the election Thevar made a bid to be elected the president of the District Board.
So did P. Conflict erupted within the local Congress organisation over the issue. Satyamurthi, on behalf of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, intervened to preserve the unity of the Congress. Thevar was convinced to withdraw his candidature for president, and presented a motion nominating Kumarasamy as president. His activities created worries for the Justice Party government, which forbade him to travel outside of the Ramnad district and to make speeches in public.
In February Thevar contested the assembly election himself, as a candidate in the Ramathapuram constituency. However, Thevar won a landslide victory with 11 votes against 6 for the Raja. Following the election the Congress formed a government in the Presidency. Thevar had high hopes that the new Congress ministry would revoke the Criminal Tribes Act.
Rajagopalachari, did not fulfil those hopes. In the end, the management of the Mahalakshmi Mills accepted the demands of the union. In the same period a strike was led by Thevar at the Madura Knitting Company. Sitaramayya had the active support of Gandhi. Bose was re-elected as the Congress President. Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress Presidency.
Thevar, who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership which had not revoked the CTA, joined the Forward Bloc. Thevar was also increasingly associated with labour militancy. A criminal case, the so-called Madura Security Case, was proceeded against him. He was banned from leaving Madurai. When travelling to his birthplace, Pasumpon, in September he was apprehended and jailed for 18 months at the Central Jail in Tiruchurapalli.
His capture sparked wide condemnation in Tamil Nadu. Soon after his release he was arrested again under the Defense of India Rules. He was released from prison on September 5, Rajagopalachari tried to make a comeback within the Congress organisation in Tamil Nadu.
A conference was held in Tirupparankundram, in which the leadership should be elected. Chaos broke about during the conference, as warring factions confronted each other. Elections to the assembly of the Madras Presidency were again held in March Thevar contested from the Mudukulathur constituency, and was elected unopposed.
Soon thereafter, the CTA was repealed. In February the Congress expelled all dissenting fractions, including the Forward Bloc. The Forward Bloc became an independent opposition party, and Thevar became its president of its Tamil Nadu state unit a position he would hold for the rest of his life. On January 23, , in connection with birthday anniversary celebrations of Subhas Chandra Bose, Thevar publicly announced that Bose was alive and that he had met him.
Soon thereafter Thevar disappeared without any explanation. He returned to public life in October On the national level the Forward Bloc had been suffering from internal ideological divisions. On June 23, , the two parties reunified at a meeting in Calcutta. A central committee was announced for the united party, which included Thevar as one of its members. The Forward Bloc contested with the aim of forming non-Congress governments at the Centre as well as in the states.
Thevar contested the Aruppukottai constituency in the Lok Sabha election and the Mudukulathur constituency in the assembly election. He won in both cases. After the election, he decided to vacate his Lok Sabha seat and concentrate his efforts to the Madras legislative assembly.
After the election, Congress lacked a majority of its own in the Madras legislative assembly. However, the governor intervened and made C. He returned on February 18, and began to prepare for the coming general election. A new dynamic in the efforts to build a non-Congress front had emerged in the Madras State which had been reorganised in The Congress had been divided and C.
Thevar now made peace with his former enemy C. In the election Thevar again contested both the Aruppukottai constituency in the Lok Sabha election and the Mudukulathur constituency in the assembly election. He won both seats, but this time he decided to vacate the assembly seat. The election was won by T. Sasivarna Thevar of the Forward Bloc. The situation in the area was tense on the day that the results were released, and there was a sizeable presence of police forces in place.
Several persons were killed and thousands of houses were torched. He returned on September 9. From the Congress side six Dalits took part. The conference concluded that the three castes should live in harmony. Emmanuel, the leader of the Congress Dalits at the Peace Conference was killed the following day.
On September 28, a few days after the clashes had ceased, Thevar was arrested by the police under the Preventive Detention Act. Thevar was taken to the Jail. Pudukkottai court was hearing that case. He was later accused of having masterminded the murder of Emmanuel.
Thevar was acquitted of all charges and released in January The alliance won the elections, and for the first time Congress lost its hold over the city administration. He was nominated for the Lok Sabha election.
However he only attended a single campaign meeting, which also was attended by C. Thevar was reelected, but due to health reasons he was unable to travel to the parliament in Delhi.
Muthuralingam Thevar died on October 30, , on his 55th birthday. A bye-election for the Aruppukottai Lok Sabha constituency seat vacated by his death was held in , in which the Forward Bloc was defeated for the first time. His relationship to Marxism was further complicated by his spiritualistic orientation.
U. Muthuramalingam Thevar
முத்துராமலிங்கத் தேவரின் வரலாறு pasumpon muthuramalinga thevar history tamil