HESIOD THEOGONY CALDWELL PDF

Mazulrajas Zeus married seven wives. Meanwhile, Nyx Night alone produced children: The first god of heaven, Alalu, is overthrown by Anu, who assumes his role. Then theogon Gaia EarthTartarus the cave-like space under the earth; the later-born Erebus is the darkness in this spaceand Eros representing sexual desire — the urge to reproduce — instead of the emotion of love as is the common misconception. Gaia also mated with Tartarus to produce Typhon[48] whom Echidna married, producing several monstrous descendants.

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It is the first known Greek mythical cosmogony. The initial state of the universe is chaos , a dark indefinite void considered a divine primordial condition from which everything else appeared. Theogonies are a part of Greek mythology which embodies the desire to articulate reality as a whole; this universalizing impulse was fundamental for the first later projects of speculative theorizing.

The poet declares that it is he, where we might have expected some king instead, upon whom the Muses have bestowed the two gifts of a scepter and an authoritative voice Hesiod, Theogony 30—3 , which are the visible signs of kingship. It is not that this gesture is meant to make Hesiod a king. Rather, the point is that the authority of kingship now belongs to the poetic voice, the voice that is declaiming the Theogony. The nine muses on a Roman sarcophagus second century AD — Louvre , Paris Although it is often used as a sourcebook for Greek mythology , [5] the Theogony is both more and less than that.

In formal terms it is a hymn invoking Zeus and the Muses: parallel passages between it and the much shorter Homeric Hymn to the Muses make it clear that the Theogony developed out of a tradition of hymnic preludes with which an ancient Greek rhapsode would begin his performance at poetic competitions. It is necessary to see the Theogony not as the definitive source of Greek mythology, but rather as a snapshot of a dynamic tradition that happened to crystallize when Hesiod formulated the myths he knew—and to remember that the traditions have continued evolving since that time.

The written form of the Theogony was established in the 6th century BC. Even some conservative editors have concluded that the Typhon episode —68 is an interpolation. Uranus Sky initially produced eighteen children with his mother, Gaia Earth : the twelve Titans, the three Cyclopes , and the three Hecatoncheires Hundred-Handers , [10] but hating them, [11] he hid them away somewhere inside Gaia. Only her son Cronus, the youngest Titan, was willing to do so.

Zeus cast the fury of his thunderbolt at the Titans, defeating them and throwing them into Tartarus. Zeus with his thunderbolt was quickly victorious, and Typhon was also imprisoned in Tartarus.

And so Zeus managed to end the cycle of succession and secure his eternal rule over the cosmos.

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HESIOD, THEOGONY

Thence they arise and go abroad by night, veiled in thick mist, and utter their song with lovely voice, praising Zeus the aegis-holder and queenly Hera of Argos who walks on golden sandals and the daughter of Zeus the aegis-holder bright-eyed Athene, and Phoebus Apollo, and Artemis who delights in arrows, and Poseidon the earth-holder who shakes the earth, and reverend Themis and quick-glancing 1 Aphrodite, and Hebe with the crown of gold, and fair Dione, Leto, Iapetus, and Cronos the crafty counsellor, Eos and great Helius and bright Selene, Earth too, and great Oceanus, and dark Night, and the holy race of all the other deathless ones that are for ever. And one day they taught Hesiod glorious song while he was shepherding his lambs under holy Helicon, and this word first the goddesses said to me — the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus who holds the aegis: "Shepherds of the wilderness, wretched things of shame, mere bellies, we know how to speak many false things as though they were true; but we know, when we will, to utter true things. But why all this about oak or stone? Unwearying flows the sweet sound from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympus resound, and the homes of the immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the gods and supreme in power. And again, they chant the race of men and strong giants, and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympus, -- the Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder.

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Hesiod's Theogony

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