ENFERMEDAD DEVIC PDF

NMO damages the protective covering of the optic nerve and nerves in the spinal cord. There are two types of NMO: Relapsing, which is the most common, and monophasic, which is rare. Relapsing NMO With this type, there is an initial attack of inflammation in the optic nerve and spinal cord followed by attacks over a period of several years. Further research is required to confirm what triggers these attacks. The individual may not be able to fully recover from the nerve damage caused by these attacks cause, and the damage is often permanent.

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NMO damages the protective covering of the optic nerve and nerves in the spinal cord. There are two types of NMO: Relapsing, which is the most common, and monophasic, which is rare. Relapsing NMO With this type, there is an initial attack of inflammation in the optic nerve and spinal cord followed by attacks over a period of several years.

Further research is required to confirm what triggers these attacks. The individual may not be able to fully recover from the nerve damage caused by these attacks cause, and the damage is often permanent.

This can cause disability and affects females more frequently than males. Monophasic NMO A limited number of attacks is experienced over a period of days or weeks. There are no subsequent attacks. This form of NMO affects both sexes equally. It is easier for an individual to recover from monophasic NMO. The type of NMO will affect how severe symptoms are as well as the likelihood of complications and disability.

Relapsing NMO is by far the most common, with 90 percent of people experiencing more than one attack. Signs and symptoms of NMO vary. A person with NMO will experience at least one bout of inflammation of the optic nerve and spinal cord. Symptoms of optic nerve inflammation, termed optic neuritis ON , include: temporary loss of eyesight affecting at least one eye, with a risk of permanent vision loss swelling of the optic disc pain in the eye that generally gets worse with movement, and tends to become more severe after a week then resolve in a few days reduced sensitivity to color People who develop optic neuritis should not drive a vehicle due to reduced vision.

They may also develop symptoms in the spinal cord from a process called transverse myelitis TM including: altered sensations, with sensitivity to temperature, numbness, tingling, and a sensation of coldness or burning weak, heavy limbs, sometimes leading to total paralysis changes in urination patterns, including urinary incontinence , difficulty urinating, and more frequent urination fecal incontinence or constipation A person with NMO may have just one mild attack of ON and one episode of TM, recover completely, or almost completely, and have no more relapses ever.

Others may have several attacks throughout their life and experience lifelong disability. NMO spectrum disorder is a term used for individuals who experience inflammation of either the optic nerve or spinal cord but not both.

In most cases, just the optic nerve and spinal cord are affected. In very rare cases, parts of the brain may also be affected.

When the brain stem is affected, an individual may experience uncontrollable hiccups or vomiting. Causes The exact causes of NMO have not yet been confirmed.

NMO is an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the optic nerve and spinal cord. The condition does not run in families.

In some rare cases, tuberculosis TB and some environmental organisms have been linked to the development of NMO. However, scientists have not been able to isolate specific organisms so far. Research suggests that NMO IgG may damage aquaporin-4, the water channel that surrounds optic nerve and spinal cord cells, causing the inflammatory effect of the condition.

However, more research is required to confirm the exact triggers of both the condition and its attacks.

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Enfermedad de Devic

Symptoms may begin in childhood or adulthood. Bladder and bowel problems may also develop. Other symptoms of neuromyelitis optica may include episodes of nausea, vomiting, and hiccups. Optic neuritis tends to occur suddenly and causes eye pain and varying degrees of vision loss. In most cases, only one eye is affected. Some people develop optic neuritis in both eyes at the same time. It may cause pain in the spine or limbs, mild to severe paralysis of the limbs, abnormal sensations in the legs, and loss of bowel or bladder control.

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